Alan S. Kaufman and Dawn P. Flanagan in .NET

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Alan S. Kaufman and Dawn P. Flanagan
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INTRODUCTION
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Watkins and Canivez (2004) published a study in Psychological Assessment, Temporal Stability of WISC-III Subtest Composite Strengths and Weaknesses. They used three-year WISC-III reevaluation data to evaluate the method of profile interpretation advocated by Kaufman and Lichtenberger (2000). They applied the kappa statistic and concluded that ipsative strengths and weaknesses (i.e., high and low scores relative to a person s own ability level) were unstable over time. Based on their analysis, they concluded that the Kaufman-Lichtenberger approach was not valid. However, Watkins and Canivez fail to demonstrate understanding of the crucial aspect of the interpretive method that emphasizes integration of multiple sources of evidence before reaching 708
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any conclusions about the meaningfulness of an individual s strengths and weaknesses. They also do not take into account other mitigating factors that might account for the low kappa statistics that were yielded by their analysis. In this Appendix, we provide specific criticisms of the WatkinsCanivez article and offer a rationale in support of the Kaufman-Lichtenberger clinical approach to profile interpretation. Nonetheless, we acknowledge that some of the published concerns about using a purely ipsative approach to profile interpretation are valid, impelling us to develop a new approach for interpreting profiles of test scores (Flanagan & Kaufman, 2004). We discuss the guiding principles for this new approach to profile interpretation that is more theory-based and integrates ipsative with normative interpretation. Watkins and Canivez used three-year reevaluation data obtained on a sample of 579 students
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APPENDIX D
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A NEW THEORY-BASED APPROACH TO PROFILE INTERPRETATION
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tested twice on the WISC-III (at age 9 and age 12) to evaluate the method of profile interpretation advocated by Kaufman and Lichtenberger (2000). They concluded that ipsative strengths and weaknesses were unstable over time. Based on their analysis, they concluded that the Kaufman-Lichtenberger approach was not valid. Watkins and Canivez argue that the WISC-III reevaluation data that they obtained from school psychologists files, have unambiguous implications for psychological practice.... [B]ecause ipsative subtest categorizations are unreliable, recommendations based on them will also be unreliable (p. 137). However, they assume incorrectly that all cognitive abilities represent enduring traits and, therefore, ought to remain stable over time. They further assume that interpretations of test data are made in a vacuum that data from multiple sources, no matter how compelling, cannot influence the findings generated from an ipsative analysis of scores from a single intelligence battery. Furthermore, because their methodology for examining the stability of cognitive strengths and weaknesses over time is questionable, their conclusions are not unambiguous. Finally, the method of test interpretation initially developed by Kaufman (1979) has changed considerably in recent years (Kaufman & Lichtenberger, 2002; Lichtenberger & Kaufman, 2003). Such changes reflect, in part, the research of Glutting and colleagues (e.g., McDermott, Fantuzzo, Glutting, Watkins, & Baggaley, 1992). However, these researchers continue their cries of Just Say No to any type of interpretation of test scores beyond a global IQ and offer no recommendations with regard to how clinicians can make sense out of an individual s scaled-score profile. Alternatively, we recognize the onerous task facing clinicians in their daily work of identifying the presumptive cause of a child s learning difficulties or an adult s problems in college, at home, or in the workplace. As such, we and our colleagues provide clinicians with guidance in the test interpretation process that is based on theory, research, psychometrics, and clinical experience. What Watkins and Canivez
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fail to accept is that the Kaufman-Lichtenberger interpretive method extends far beyond the identification of intra-individual strengths and weaknesses. The following is a discussion of the most salient flaws in Watkins and Canivez s evaluation of the Kaufman-Lichtenberger method.
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NOT ALL COGNITIVE ABILITIES REMAIN STABLE OVER TIME
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Watkins and Canivez stated that intelligence is presumed to be an enduring trait. However, although this statement is generally true of global ability (e.g., Wechsler IQs), it is not necessarily true of specific or narrow cognitive abilities (Carroll, 1993), as reflected by subtest scores, for example. Because all traits are not enduring, some test authors have attempted to correct for trait instability when reporting test-retest reliability coefficients (McGrew, Werder, & Woodcock, 1991). Watkins and Canivez do not account for trait instability, or even consider known neurological and developmental changes that occur between the average age of the test (9 years) and retest (12 years) in their investigation. At age 9, children are in Piaget s stage of concrete operations whereas at age 12, they are in the stage of formal operations. Coinciding with the onset of formal operational thought is the rapid development at about ages 11 to 12 of the tertiary areas of the prefrontal lobes, associated with planning ability. These new developments between test 1 and test 2 change the way the average child approaches solving problems and makes children qualitatively different at age 12 compared to age 9. Their different performance on specific abilities the second time around may relate to their mental development at about age 11, which will not be a constant from child to child; some children will benefit from the neurological and cognitive
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