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do poorly on fluid tasks and are assumed to be unable to function independently based on those results. Generally the K-FAST Composite is a good measure of g (general ability); Reading is strongly associated with crystallized ability and Arithmetic with fluid ability, crystallized ability, and short-term memory. In addition to the advantages that we have described for the K-FAST, there are some disadvantages. For example, the test measures only one of eight areas reported by Harrison (1990) that are found in most adaptive behavior inventories, applied cognitive skills (Shaw, 1998). Because of the reading required on some items, the K-FAST should not be used as an estimate of functional intelligence for individuals with known or suspected learning disabilities in reading or math or for nonreaders. The test does not discriminate among those who score high on the K-FAST as it only yields scores up to two standard deviations above the mean (Williams, 1998). Although the overall standardization sample was strong, the norm samples for certain age groups were relatively small: ages 65 69 (N = 81), ages 70 74 (N = 93), and ages 75 85+ (N = 103) (Shaw, 1998). A clinically depressed sample scored better than the normal sample, indicating that the test does not discriminate well between normal and depressed populations. The manual presents only one validity study with adaptive behavior scales and achievement tests. In summary, the advantages of the K-FAST seem to outweigh its disadvantages. Some of its most positive aspects include the ease and brevity of administration and scoring, its excellent psychometric properties and standardization sample (it has outstanding reliability for such a brief test), and its outstanding use with lower functioning examinees. Even though the K-FAST has high g-loadings and correlates highly with popular IQ tests, it should not be interpreted as an intelligence test. Rather, it should be used to supplement other norm-referenced academic tests, intelligence tests, or adaptive behavior measures, as the K-FAST measures a limited subset
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In this chapter, we review the history of assessment with short forms and other brief tests. We discuss reasons why short forms, typically of Wechsler s scales, used to be a much better choice for brief assessment, but that is no longer the case. In past times, the available, commonly used brief tests, primarily the Slosson and ShipleyHartford, were of poor psychometric quality. The Slosson Intelligence Test, a mostly verbal test organized in the format of the old Binet, has been commonly used for decades, but it has largely unknown psychometric properties and a poor standardization sample. The Shipley-Hartford, a self-administered test that contains two subtests (Vocabulary and Abstraction) comes equipped with an outstanding manual, yet has a thoroughly inadequate normative sample and unimpressive stability data. Present-day brief tests, notably the WASI, KBIT, and WRIT, are well normed, reliable and stable, and valid. This new breed of brief test is preferable to the use of short forms because of built-in limitations of short forms, as J. Kaufman and A. Kaufman (in press) have argued. These limitations include issues involving norms for short forms that are derived from an administration of the complete battery and statistical problems that occur because of correlated error variance. One of the problems with short-form norms pertains to research conducted by Thompson and colleagues. They explored the impact of estimated IQs obtained just from administration of Silverstein s short forms versus the IQs estimated from these same brief tests embedded in the complete WAIS-R. Such studies are sorely needed because virtually all short-form research has come from after-the-fact studies of complete
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intelligence tests, not from separate administrations of the abbreviated batteries. Silverstein s dyad (V BD) was found by Thompson to yield overestimates of IQ when administered in isolation. A second problem with norms concerns the Satz-Mogel split-half abbreviations of Wechsler s tests. These kinds of short forms have been common research topics, and continue to evoke investigations in the twenty-first century, but it is highly questionable whether norms based on a complete administration of the WAIS-R or WAIS-III are applicable to IQs obtained when every second or third item is administered. Cella s modified WAIS-R, which adjusts the starting points of numerous subtests to save administration time, has flaws similar to the SatzMogel procedure. The statistical issue surrounding short-form use concerns the fact that, when validity coefficients are obtained (correlation of short form with Full Scale) based on a single administration of the complete battery, there is spuriousness due to correlated error variance. Depending on the purposes of administering a short form, it is sometimes advisable to apply Silverstein s correction to validity coefficients and sometimes advisable to interpret the obtained coefficients. In any case, we argue that the problems with norms and the statistical concerns are all based on the fact that both norms and validity coefficients are based on administration of the complete battery, and not on a separate administration of just the short form. Some researchers have argued that Silverstein s V BD Wechsler short form is unfair to African Americans because the component subtests produce among the largest ethnic differences. Similar concerns might apply to Hispanics because of the inclusion of Vocabulary. Consequently, our suggestion to abandon short forms in favor of the new breed of brief tests required careful consideration for their applicability to these two ethnic groups; both the WASI and WRIT include V and BD, and the K-BIT includes a measure of vocabulary. Data on the
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WAIS-III versions of WASI subtests suggest that both the two-subtest and four-subtest versions of the WASI are fair to administer to African Americans and Hispanics. K-BIT versus KAIT ethnicdifference data, however, suggest not using the K-BIT in place of the KAIT or the WAIS-III with these ethnic groups. No pertinent ethnic data are available for the WRIT. Since 1990, Ward, Ryan, and others have supported the use of a seven-subtest WAIS-R or WAIS-III short form. We argue against this short form and in favor of the new brief tests because no norms are available only for the sevensubtest short form. We urge examiners to administer the 11 WAIS-III subtests that are needed to yield the four factor indexes (eliminating the long Comprehension and Picture Arrangement subtests if time is an issue), but not to give the seven-subtest short form. The use of brief intelligence tests is justified under certain conditions, for example, for screening, so long as the scores are not used for categorization, diagnosis, or drawing neuropsychological inferences. Otherwise, comprehensive IQ tests should be administered. The remainder of the chapter reviews several available brief tests, all having excellent psychometric properties. The brief tests are organized as follows: (1) the best brief tests that yield measures of both verbal and nonverbal intelligence; (2) the best measures of either verbal or nonverbal ability; (3) specialized brief tests, for example, of functional intelligence. The WASI, K-BIT, and WRIT are all brief measures of intellectual ability that provide a global IQ as well as a verbal/crystallized score and a visual/fluid score. All three instruments have strong psychometric properties and were standardized on large, highly representative samples. Their correlations with more comprehensive measures of IQ are generally impressive and support their valid use in most assessment situations where a brief test is justified. PPVT-III is a solid measure of receptive vocabulary, which has also been used by many
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