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were too school-like or minimized practical application. In fact, unlike most reading achievement tests, the K-FAST Reading subtest does not assess pronunciation or the ability to recognize multisyllabic or phonetically irregular words. Moreover, the K-FAST Arithmetic subtest uses pictorial stimuli along with its verbally presented questions to lessen the influence of reading. Thus, the K-FAST provides a unique, standardized way to briefly measure functional intelligence and achievement. Standardization and Psychometric Properties The K-FAST was standardized on a sample of 1,424 subjects ages 15 to 85+ years. The sample was stratified within each age group by gender, geographic region, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnic group. The sample closely approximates the 1988 U.S. Census data. The mean splithalf reliability coefficients for both subtests and the Functional Academic Skills Composite (all standard scores with mean = 100 and SD = 15) were strong for all age groups: Reading (.90), Arithmetic (.88), and Composite (.94) (see Table 15.6). Test-retest reliability was based on data from 116 adolescents and adults ages 15 91 years who were tested twice on the K-FAST (average test-retest interval was 33 days). Very good testretest reliability was found for the two subtests and the composite; the mean values of the coefficients across all ages for Arithmetic and Reading were .84 and .88, respectively, and the mean stability coefficient for the Composite was .91 (see Table 15.6). Multiple studies with the K-FAST and tests of intelligence provide evidence of the test s criterion validity, but relatively few studies include tests of achievement and adaptive functioning. The K-FAST manual provides complete results of correlational studies involving the K-FAST and the WISC-R, WAIS-R, SB-IV, and the KAIT (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1994a, Tables 6.8 6.10, pp. 52 56) in addition to studies involving the K-FAST and brief measures, including the K-BIT,
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TABLE 15.6 K-FAST split-half and test-retest
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reliability Split-Half Reliability Age 15 16 17 19 20 24 25 34 35 44 45 54 55 59 60 64 65 69 70 74 75 85+ Mean Split-Half Reliability Mean TestRetest Reliability Arithmetic Reading Composite .88 .89 .83 .89 .86 .89 .91 .85 .94 .92 .85 .88 .87 .89 .87 .89 .89 .86 .90 .94 .91 .94 .95 .93 .90 .88 .93 .93 .92 .94 .92 .94 .96 .93 .97 .96 .94 .94 .91
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NOTE: Adapted from Lichtenberger, Broadbooks, and Kaufman (2000).
PPVT-R, and K-SNAP (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1994a, Tables 6.11 6.12). The K-FAST Composite correlated .71 with WISC-R and WAIS-R Full Scale IQs, .84 with Binet-4 Composite, and .80 with KAIT Composite IQ. It correlated .84 with K-BIT IQ Composite, .77 with PPVT-R standard score (ages 15 40), and .64 with K-SNAP Composite. In addition, initial correlational studies with a traditional achievement test (K-TEA Brief Form) were conducted with two clinical populations, one group with mental retardation and one with reading disabilities. The K-FAST Composite standard score correlated .54 with the K-TEA Composite for the sample of individuals with mental retardation (N = 24), and .76 for the sample of individuals with reading disabilities (N = 34). The results indicate that the types of academic abilities measured by the K-FAST are different from the more traditional academic skills
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assessed by the K-TEA. Correlations with a group of people with mental retardation (N = 60) were also conducted on the K-FAST Reading and Arithmetic subtests and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Survey Form (Stinson, 1988). However, Stinson s results need to be interpreted in light of the fact that, when the data were collected, the K-FAST subtests were in their standardization form in which each subtest was composed of 44 items. Moreover, half the sample was younger than the age of 15, which now is the youngest age for the K-FAST norms. The K-FAST raw scores for the Arithmetic and Reading Subtests (norms were not available when Stinson conducted her study) correlated .30 and .41 with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite. Similar to the above results with the K-TEA, these results suggest that the K-FAST measures different aspects of adaptive behavior than the Vineland. Additional validity data for the K-FAST is found in factor-analytic studies and studies on aging patterns. A joint factor analysis of the K-SNAP, K-FAST, and KAIT (N = 1,270) yielded crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf ) factors (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1993). The K-FAST Reading and Arithmetic subtests were associated with the crystallized factor, which was hypothesized as they both depend on formal education and acculturation for success. In Kaufman et al. s (1994) joint factor analysis of several tests including the WAIS-R that produced four factors, the K-FAST s two subtests were associated with Gc (Reading & Arithmetic), Gf (Arithmetic), and Gsm (Arithmetic) factors. The fact that Reading is associated with Gc, and that Arithmetic is multifactorial, are both consistent with Horn s (1989) expanded Gf Gc theory. The aging patterns on the K-FAST subtest are similar to the maintained patterns seen on other tests of crystallized ability (see 5), joining the results of factor analysis in providing support for the construct validity of the test. Evaluation Generally, the published reviews of the K-FAST (Shaw, 1998; Williams, 1998) are quite positive.
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Lichtenberger et al. (2000) provide detailed lists of the test s strengths and weaknesses, many of which we highlight here. In contrast to other widely used measures of adaptive functioning, the K-FAST directly assesses adaptive functioning, rather than requiring a parent or teacher to describe the examinee s abilities. However, the K-FAST only measures a very limited aspect of adaptive functioning (Shaw, 1998). K-FAST subtests require application of skills to everyday situations, not simply regurgitation of school-learned knowledge. All K-FAST items are untimed, which allows measurement of functional intelligence without speed as a central component. Examinees are allowed to use paper and pencil, which makes the testing situation more like everyday life. Accurate and stable measurement of individuals with low cognitive ability can be ascertained with the K-FAST. Several facets of the K-FAST s administration are positive. K-FAST scoring is objective and straightforward and the discontinue rule is the same for both subtests, which simplifies the administration process (Williams, 1998). Examinees are allowed to respond in foreign language, sign language, or slang, which is beneficial to those with disabilities or those for whom English is a second language. In addition, pronunciation on the Reading subtest is not penalized as it is on many other academic reading tests. The standardization and psychometric properties of the K-FAST also are quite good (Shaw, 1998). The K-FAST was co-normed and developed with the KAIT, K-BIT, and K-SNAP, which allows for easy interpretation of the instruments when they are used together. The large standardization sample is well stratified on age, gender, geographic region, SES, and race/ethnicity. Reliability and validity were well demonstrated in the manual (Shaw, 1998). Because the K-FAST manual includes a description of suggested interpretive steps, examiners will find interpretation to be uncomplicated (Williams, 1998). The test provides a good assessment of crystallized ability, making it a good supplemental measure for the elderly, who often
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