HERITABILITY AND MALLEABILITY OF IQ AND ATTACKS ON THE IQ CONSTRUCT in .NET

Drawer Code 128 Code Set A in .NET HERITABILITY AND MALLEABILITY OF IQ AND ATTACKS ON THE IQ CONSTRUCT
HERITABILITY AND MALLEABILITY OF IQ AND ATTACKS ON THE IQ CONSTRUCT
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twins behavior. The latter two styles were also associated with lower children s IQs. Heritability and Ethnicity Scarr and Carter-Saltzman (1982, Figure 13.12) demonstrate substantial differences among three ethnic groups in the relationships between the cognitive scores obtained by children and their parents. Regressions of mid-child on mid-parent for verbal, spatial, perceptual speed, and visual memory factors averaged about .70 for Koreans, .50 for Americans of European ancestry living in Hawaii, and .35 for Americans of Japanese ancestry living in Hawaii. Heritability and Age Despite occasional statistical arguments to the contrary (e.g., Devlin, Daniels, & Roeder, 1997), it has become widely accepted among behavior geneticists that heritabilities are substantially larger in adulthood than childhood (Bouchard, 1996, 1998; McGue et al., 1993; Neisser et al., 1996; Plomin & Petrill, 1997). Based on data from the Colorado Adoption Study, Plomin, Fulker, Corley, and DeFries (1997) concluded that genetic influence increases monotonically from infancy to childhood to adolescence (p. 446). The substantially greater role of genetics in adulthood than in childhood is evident in Table 2.1 from a comparison of the correlations between unrelated siblings reared together when they are tested as children (.28) as opposed to when they were tested as adults (.04). The same age-related inference can be drawn from Table 2.2, regarding the results of the Texas Adoption Study: The differential between the correlations for the birth mother versus adoptive parents was substantially greater when the children were older than when they were younger (a difference in coefficients of about .40 at the 10-year followup compared to a difference of about .20 at the original assessments). Furthermore, high heritabilities for Wechsler s Full Scale in the low- to mid-.80s, well above the average of about .50 for
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studies of children have been obtained for adult samples, such as the ones tested in twin studies conducted in Norway (Tambs, Sundet, & Magnus, 1984), Sweden (Pederson, Plomin, Nesselroade, & McClearn, 1992), and Minnesota (McGue et al., 1993). All of these findings suggest that the role of genetics increases as children become adolescents and then adults, at the same time that the modest effect of family environmental factors may be decreasing. The increase in heritability with age has been demonstrated as well in studies that cover a relatively small age span. In a study of Dutch twins tested at age 5 (N = 209 pairs) and again at age 7 (N = 192), the heritability increased dramatically from .27 at age 5 to .62 at age 7 (Boomsma & van Baal, 1998). Remarkably, the influence of heredity on infant intelligence increased steadily from age 14 months to 36 months in a longitudinal study of identical and fraternal twins selected for high cognitive ability on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Bayley, 1969) at ages 14, 20, and 24 months, and on the original StanfordBinet (Terman & Merrill, 1973) at age 36 months (Petrill et al., 1998). Heritabilities in the Petrill et al. study increased in value from .00 to .28 to .40 to .64 as age increased from 14 to 36 months for these high-scoring infants. At the same time, the role of group common environment (i.e., shared family environment, usually abbreviated c2) decreased from an average of .39 at 14 24 months to .07 at 36 months. McGue et al. (1993, Figure 2) graphed the heritabilities derived from reared-together twin studies, along with the values of c2 (shared home environment) as well as environmental influences other than those derived from growing up in the same family (nonshared environment). Heritabilities rise from the low .40s at ages 4 6 years to the mid-.50s at ages 6 20 to the mid-.80s for adults aged 21 and older. Corresponding to this increase in heritabilities is a decrease in c2 for the same three age groups, from the mid-.30s to about .30 to near-zero. In contrast to these substantial age changes, the proportions for nonshared environment across this broad age range
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