V P IQ DISCREPANCIES: A CLINICAL APPROACH in .NET

Integrating Code 128B in .NET V P IQ DISCREPANCIES: A CLINICAL APPROACH
V P IQ DISCREPANCIES: A CLINICAL APPROACH
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suspected of intellectual giftedness. The key to making appropriate decisions about giftedness is to consider more than a simple cutoff score (such as a Full Scale IQ of above 125 or 130). Important issues such as the appropriateness of a particular test for a person of a certain cultural background, the ceiling effects, the effect of speed on an individual s score, and the scatter within a person s profile must be considered. WAIS-R and WAIS-III Patterns for Individuals with Full Scale IQ of 110 or Above Consistent with the finding that highly educated adults (at least one year of graduate school; see Table 8.21) display higher scores on the Verbal than Performance scale is the finding that adolescents and adults with IQs in the High Average (Bright), Superior, and Very Superior ranges earn V > P profiles. Matarazzo and Herman (1985) combined data for the 1,880 individuals aged 16 74 in the WAIS-R standardization sample and grouped them into five IQ categories. Of the 177 people earning Full Scale IQs of 120 or more, about one fourth had V P IQ discrepancies, in either direction, of 15+ points. Of this group with sizable discrepancies between their verbal and nonverbal abilities, 62% evidenced V > P profiles. A similar result emerged for the 312 people scoring 110 119 on the WAIS-R Full Scale; of the portion of this sample earning V P differences of at least 15 points, 57% had V > P profiles. Using other criteria for determining large differences between V- and P-IQ (10, 13, or 22 points), Matarazzo and Herman (Table 5) showed that people in the 110 119 and 120+ IQ ranges consistently demonstrated V > P patterns more so than P > V profiles. None of the other IQ categories displayed characteristic V P differences on the WAIS-R. Although specific research on the WAIS-III has not yet been reported for individuals in the gifted range, from examination of the frequencies of differences between WAIS-III IQs in the standardization sample (N = 2,450), we can make
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some inferences. In the WAIS-III standardization sample, a WAIS-III V P difference of 9 points is needed for significance at the .05 level. Adolescents and adults with Full Scale IQs of 120 or above achieved a 9-point V P discrepancy (in either direction) in about 54% of the cases. In addition, a 17-point V P discrepancy is considered abnormally large (i.e., it occurs less than 15% of the time in the overall standardization sample). However, a discrepancy of that magnitude occurs 20% of the time in individuals with Full Scale IQs of 120 or above, which implies that it is not, in fact, rare for individuals who function in the Superior or Very Superior range of intelligence. Likewise, even individuals who function in the High Average range of intelligence (FS-IQ of 110 119) quite frequently have significant WAIS-III V P discrepancies (48% of the time) or abnormally large discrepancies (18% percent of the time). For a WAIS-III V P discrepancy (in either direction) to be considered unusually or abnormally large in the Superior or Very Superior functioning individuals it would have to be 20 points or larger. Similar findings characterize the WISC-III. Examination of the WISC-III standardization sample of 2,200 children and adolescents showed that 118 individuals had Full Scale IQs that were greater than or equal to 125 (a common cutoff point for determining giftedness); Sparrow and Gurland (1998) reported that 45.8% of those 118 children in the standardization sample had Verbal IQ versus Performance IQ discrepancies that were statistically significant at the .05 level ( 11 points). A difference of 16 or more points (p < .01) was found in 27.1% of the gifted sample. Large V P IQ discrepancies on any Wechsler test raise questions about whether the Full Scale IQ criteria for defining giftedness are adequate. Subtest scatter is reported in greater frequency in gifted samples than in the normative sample (Fishkin, Kampsnider, & Pack, 1996). Careful consideration always needs to be given as to whether the Full Scale IQ can be meaningfully interpreted for each individual child (e.g., Kaufman,
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