V P IQ DISCREPANCIES: A CLINICAL APPROACH in .NET

Encoding Code 128C in .NET V P IQ DISCREPANCIES: A CLINICAL APPROACH
V P IQ DISCREPANCIES: A CLINICAL APPROACH
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other types of dementia. In Brinkman and Braun s investigation, the 39 patients with multiinfarct dementia clearly did not evidence a substantial V > P pattern (V-IQ = 95, P-IQ = 94). However, Fuld (1984) found that 7 of her 11 multi-infarct dementia patients (64%) showed a V > P profile of 15+ points, very similar to the value of 52% obtained for the patients with Alzheimer s-type dementia. Randolph et al. (1993) examined the WAIS-R scores of 53 patients with Alzheimer s disease (mean age 66), in addition to the samples of patients with Huntington s disease and Parkinson s disease, discussed previously. The patients with Alzheimer s disease and Huntington s disease were not significantly different in their global IQs, but the Parkinson s group IQ means were significantly higher than both the Alzheimer s and Huntington s groups. Randolph et al. s results showed that all three groups had a V > P pattern; Alzheimer s patients had a mean V P discrepancy of 8.2 points, a bit larger than the discrepancy for Huntington s patients, but considerably smaller than the V > P profile for Parkinson s patients. Overall, all three samples of patients with dementia were characterized by preservation of verbal knowledge and relative impairment on the Performance subtests, and, generally, the subtest profiles were remarkably similar. Like the similarities found between dementing diseases such as Alzheimer s, Huntington s, and Parkinson s (Randolph et al., 1993), there are also many similarities between Alzheimer s-type dementia and multi-infarct dementia. In the early stages of both of these disorders, there are cognitive deficits, but some of the cognitive differences include greater impairment in abstract thinking and judgment for patients with Alzheimer s disease. In addition, overall memory is more preserved in multi-infarct dementia. Erker, Searight, and Peterson (1995) administered the WAIS-R to 62 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer s disease (mean age = 73.2 years, mean education = 9.9) and 20 patients with multi-infarct dementia (mean age = 74.5 years, mean education = 10.8). When Verbal and Performance IQs were examined for the two groups, no significant differences
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were found. Both groups evidenced a V > P pattern, although the V P discrepancy was twice as large for the multi-infarct dementia group (11 vs. 5.2 points). The groups had similar P-IQs, but the group with multi-infarct dementia had a higher V-IQ by 7 points. Despite the relatively similar V > P patterns, the multi-infarct dementia patients demonstrated better preserved memory in comparison to WAIS-R scores, relative to Alzheimer s patients. Erker et al. s data on multiinfarct dementia patients produced results inconsistent with Brinkman and Braun s (1984) investigation, in which the 39 patients with multiinfarct dementia had essentially a V = P pattern. McCurry, Fitz, and Teri (1994) administered the WAIS-R to 216 patients with probable Alzheimer s disease. All patients were aged 75 or older (mean = 79.9 years) with 51% having some formal education beyond high school. The sample was 62% female. McCurry et al. compared WAIS-R IQs based on four different sets of norms: (1) WAIS-R manual s norms for ages 70 74; (2) Ryan, Paolo, and Brungardt s (1990) norms for ages 75 79 and 80 or above; (3) Mayo s Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS; Ivnik et al., 1992); and (4) Malec et al. s (1992) ageand education-corrected MOANS norms. Despite notable differences between the four sets of norms, in all instances a V > P pattern was found for this elderly Alzheimer s sample, with differences ranging from 6.3 to 9.5 points. WAIS-R IQs were reported in a sample of 32 patients with Alzheimer s disease (41% male, mean age = 71.6, mean education = 12.6) (Schopp, Callahan, Johnstone, & Schwake, 1998). The group as a whole had a 3.5-point V > P profile, although the discrepancy was larger for the portion of the sample ages 75 and above than for the younger part of the sample. Paque and Warrington (1995) administered a shortened version of the WAIS-R to 57 people with probable Alzheimer s disease on two occasions (about 10 months apart). A subset of 13 people was administered the WAIS-R on three occasions, separated by at least 10 months. The mean age at first assessment for the entire sample was 60.5 years (range 39 82). In both testings of the complete
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