V P IQ DISCREPANCIES: A CLINICAL APPROACH in .NET

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V P IQ DISCREPANCIES: A CLINICAL APPROACH
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all three ethnic groups displayed about a 2-point increase in P > V when comparing the WAIS to the WAIS-R. As with adolescents identified as delinquents, however, generalization from college students is tenuous. Certainly, though, the results with the WAIS and WAIS-R reported by Murray et al. (1973) and Whitworth and Gibbons (1986) are consistent with the large body of data obtained for Hispanic children with the WISC, WISC-R, and WISC-III (McShane & Cook, 1985; Prifitera et al., 1998). The best data for evaluating nonverbal > verbal profiles for Hispanic adults is provided for the WAIS-III by Manly et al. (2000) and Heaton et al. (in press) based on analyses of standardization data. Without a control for education or gender, but just an age control, the Hispanic sample (N = 163, ages 20 89) earned POI > VCI by about 5 points (Manly et al., 2000); comparable IQ data were not provided. When age, gender, and education were all controlled, the sample of Hispanic adults displayed a small P-IQ > V-IQ profile (3.3 points) and a trivial POI > VCI pattern (1.2 points) (Heaton et al., in press). The weak area for the Hispanic adults was on the WMI, not the VCI or V-IQ. The results of the WAIS-III analyses, briefly summarized here, are treated in depth in 4, which also presents data for other samples of Hispanic adults tested on the Binet-4, KAIT, and K-BIT. Thus, WAIS-III P > V and POI > VCI profiles range from small to trivial, suggesting that the stereotypical high nonverbal low verbal pattern for Hispanics typically identified on Wechsler s children s scales, including the WISC-III (especially for the children of uneducated parents) does not particularly apply to adults tested on the WAIS-III. Instead, data with the sample of normal Hispanic adults ages 20 89 suggests a relative weakness in the Working Memory subtests, coupled with a mean PSI of about 100. American Indians WAIS-III data are as yet unavailable for samples of American Indians, and adult data have been
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sparse, but for Wechsler s children s scales P > V discrepancies are sometimes monstrously large. Navajo children tend to score about 30 points (2 standard deviations!) higher on the WISC, WISC-R, or WISC-III Performance Scale; other tribes, such as Cree, Sioux, Tlingit, Ojibwa (Chippewa), Northern Cheyenne, Blackfeet, and Tohono O odham as well as groups identified just as Native American or American Indian tend to have large P > V patterns, but the differences are usually in the 1 2 to 11 2 SD range (Atkinson, 1995; Connelly, 1983; Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983b, Table 4.19; McCullough et al., 1985, Table 1; McShane & Berry, 1989; Salois, 1999; Shah, 1999; Tanner-Halverson, Burden, & Sabers, 1993). The differences of 2 standard deviations between the P- and V-IQs of Navajo children and adolescents have been found to hold for separate groups of learning-disabled, educationally disadvantaged, and nonhandicapped individuals (Teeter, Moore, & Petersen, 1982). The results of a few WAIS studies with adolescents and adults have generally been similar (Crandall, 1969), although the differences in favor of Performance IQ for American Indians have not been as dramatic for the WAIS as was sometimes found for Wechsler s children s scales. McCullough et al. (1985) studied 75 adolescent American Indians from the Pacific Northwest (mostly Yakima), ages 12 19, attending a private junior and senior high school. Those administered the WISC-R (N = 42) scored 19 points higher on the Performance Scale (99 vs. 80); the 33 adolescents given the WAIS showed a 15point difference (P-IQ = 106; V-IQ = 91). Even Navajo 16- and 17-year-olds (N = 100) had a relatively moderate P > V difference of 10 points on the WAIS (Howell, Evans, & Donning, 1958), when compared to the 30-point differences typically identified for samples of Navajo children. The slightly smaller P > V pattern on the WAIS than WISC-R in McCullough et al. s (1985) study, and the different magnitude of discrepancies for Navajo children versus adults, are consistent with WISC results reported by St. John, Krichev, and Bauman (1976)
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