V P IQ DISCREPANCIES: A CLINICAL APPROACH in .NET

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V P IQ DISCREPANCIES: A CLINICAL APPROACH
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tained larger P > V differences on Wechsler s children scales than on his adult scales (Kaufman, 1990; also, see 4), and 16-yearolds diagnosed as EMR had a larger P > V discrepancy on the WISC-R than on the WAIS (3.7 points; Nagle & Lazarus, 1979). Cornell and Wilson (1992) assessed 44 Caucasian and 103 African American juvenile delinquents with either the WISC-R or WAIS-R (ages 12 17; mean = 15.2). Overall, their mean P-IQ (92.1) was significantly greater than their mean V-IQ (83.3), and approximately 35% of the juveniles had a P > V pattern that included at least a 12-point discrepancy. However, unlike previously cited research, when comparing the two ethnic groups, Cornell and Wilson found that there were no significant differences between Caucasians and African Americans in terms of the numbers of juveniles in each group that obtained a P > V pattern versus those who did not. They did, however, find that Caucasians, overall, scored significantly higher than African Americans on both the Verbal and Performance IQs. In addition, they found that more nonviolent offenders had P > V profiles than violent offenders (although this comparison was just short of being significant; p = .053). No difference was found between subjects who were administered the WISC-R versus the WAIS-R. Adult prison inmates tested on the WAIS-R have evidenced relatively small P > V differences. Kender et al. (1985) found a difference of 31 2 points for 565 incarcerated males and females ranging from 16 to 65 years (average age = 30). Although the P > V profile was almost identical for underachieving readers (N = 319) and adequate readers (N = 246) in Kender et al. s investigation, Zinkus and Gottlieb (1979) did find a difference between adolescent males in the 13to 18-year age range when this group was divided into those with adequate educational achievement and those with severe academic deficiencies: The former group had a slight (1point) V > P profile, whereas the group with school learning problems had P > V by about 4 points. DeWolfe and Ryan (1984) also found a significant relationship between the P > V sign
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and reading ability for their sample of adult male felons and suspected felons; among inmates with reading disabilities, 62% had P > V patterns compared to only 36% of inmates without reading disabilities. As indicated previously, Gold and Horn (1983) found substantial mean WAIS IQ differences in favor of Performance IQ (7 to 11 points) for male illiterate prison inmates (82% African American) aged 16 to 51 with an average education level of 7.5. However, the P > V discrepancy might have been related to their psychopathic behavior, reading problem, low level of formal education, or some combination of these three variables. Indeed, the type of crime might have been a factor as well. DeWolfe and Ryan (1984) found the P > V pattern in 87% of the male inmates convicted of sex crimes compared to 33% of those incarcerated for murder or attempted murder. Overview of Research Results with Delinquents and Psychopathic Behavior The compilation of data during the past half century on delinquents and those demonstrating sociopathic behavior suggests that the P > V sign may be associated to some extent with the Wechsler profiles of younger adolescents tested on the WISC or WISC-R. The P > V pattern is occasionally found in older adolescent and adult populations of delinquents and psychopaths. For example, Lueger and Cadman (1982) found higher Performance IQs than Verbal IQs for 89 male delinquents aged 14 17 tested on the WISC, WISC-R, or WAIS. They discovered that 92% of the boys classified as recidivists (those who were convicted of a felony or lesser offense within 15 months after release from a residential treatment program) had higher Performance than Verbal IQ profiles, and they reported mean P > V profiles of 51 2 to 9 1 2 points for their groups of recidivists, nonrecidivists, and program-terminated delinquents. In general, male delinquents who are recidivists seem to display significantly larger P > V mean differences on the WISC-R than delinquents with
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