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Longitudinal comparison of WISC-R and WAIS-R IQs for clinical populations Nature of Sample In LD or MR Classes Special Ed. Referrals (white) Special Ed. Referrals (black) Mean Mean Mean Mean Age Age IQ IQ WISC-R WAIS-R WISC-R WAIS-R Difference 13.8 17.5 V 81.0 P 84.7 FS 81.1 V 75.8 P 79.7 FS 75.9 V 70.6 P 72.6 FS 69.6 V 58.8 P 60.7 FS 55.8 V 72.4 P 77.2 FS 72.4 P 94.9 V 00.0 P 00.0 FS 00.0 81.3 86.5 82.7 81.2 83.3 81.2 75.3 72.3 73.0 70.0 65.5 66.9 77.9 79.5 77.5 97.2 +0.3 +1.8 +1.6 +5.4 +3.6 +5.2 +4.7 0.3 +3.4 +11.2 +4.8 +11.1 +5.5 +2.3 +5.1 +2.3 +5.4 +2.3 +5.1
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Authors Sattler et al. (1984)
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Zimmerman et al. (1986)
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TMR & EMR (residential) Special Ed. Students Deaf (residential)
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NOTE: Difference equals WAIS-R IQ minus WISC-R IQ.
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The WAIS-R produced higher Verbal IQs than the WISC-R by an average of 5.4 points (range of 0.3 to 11.2), higher Performance IQs by an average of 2.3 points (range of 0.3 to 4.8), and higher Full Scale IQs by an average of 5.1 points (range of 1.6 to 11.1). These discrepancies are opposite in direction to what one would anticipate, inasmuch as tests normed more recently invariably produce lower mean scores than their predecessors (Flynn, 1984). Although regression to the mean will tend to increase IQs for the low IQ adolescents who are retested on the WAIS-R, the differences of 5 to 51 2 points for the Verbal and Full Scale IQs are larger than one would expect from a simple re-
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gression effect. These findings accord with similar results of nearly a dozen WISC/WAIS or WISC-R/WAIS investigations in the literature (Carvajal, Lane, & Gay, 1984). The difference in the scores yielded by the WAIS-R and WISC-R may be primarily due to the problems cited previously with the WAIS-R norms at ages 16 19, to the instability of norms for low IQ levels because of the few individuals at those levels who are included in the standardization samples, to the lack of bottom for several WAIS-R subtests, to a real gain in intelligence for low-functioning individuals over time, or some other reason. Because the identical results occurred with the 1955 WAIS, the problem is not
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likely to be the problematical WAIS-R adolescent norms. The possibility of the gain truly reflecting improved ability was given some support by Carvajal et al. s (1984) WISC/WAIS study. They analyzed data for 66 retarded individuals tested on the WISC at an average age of 11 years, 9 months and on the WAIS at 17 years, 6 months. The group gained 9 1 2 points in FS-IQ on the retest. But Carvajal et al. were able to retest 21 subjects on the WAIS at a mean age of 28 years, 6 months. This subsample showed a gain in mean IQ from 64 on the WISC at time 1 to 73 on the WAIS at time 2 to 791 2 on the WAIS at time 3; the gain from older adolescence to adulthood for this sample of individuals with mental retardation held the instrument constant. However, the sample was small and contained only those willing to be tested; conclusions are tentative and not generalizable. The only conclusion is that the WAIS-R (like the WAIS before it) tends to yield higher IQs than the WISC-R, especially on the Verbal and Full Scales, for lowfunctioning individuals who are retested on the WAIS-R after several years. WAIS-R versus WISC-R for Individuals with Mental Retardation When Zimmerman, Covin, and Woo-Sam (1986) combined data from their two subsamples of referrals, they found that the discrepancies in favor of WAIS-R were largest for mentally retarded individuals and virtually disappeared for subjects with average or near-average IQs. Based on WISC-R Full Scale IQ, they found the following discrepancies with WAIS-R IQ by IQ level:
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IQ Level 40 59 60 69 70 79 80 89 90 and above N 11 23 32 15 9 Mean Difference +14.4 +5.5 +2.7 +1.1 +1.3
These results are highly similar to the results reported by Zimmerman et al. for the separate Verbal and Performance Scales. Rubin, Goldman, and Rosenfeld (1985) divided their institutionalized sample of individuals with mental retardation into subgroups of trainable mentally retarded (N = 21) and educable mentally retarded (N = 20), using a WISC-R Full Scale IQ of 55 as the cutoff. Like Zimmerman et al. (1986), Rubin et al. found the difference in Full Scale IQs for the group with lower IQs to be larger than the WAIS-R/WISC-R discrepancy for the EMRs (14 versus 7 points). Also, Carvajal et al. (1984) found slightly larger gains from WISC to WAIS over a 6-year interval for retarded people with IQs below 70 (101 2 points) than for those with IQs of 70 and above (8 points). Again, the direction of the relationship between the size of the IQ discrepancy and level of intelligence is predictable based on the known impact of the phenomenon of regression to the mean; however, the magnitude of the relationship is more than one would anticipate from the statistical artifact. The consequence of the higher WAIS-R than WISC-R IQs for low-IQ individuals is a different intelligence classification on reevaluation, which occurred frequently in Zimmerman et al. s (1986) study, and dramatically in the investigation by Rubin et al. (1985). The former group of researchers state: Such dramatic changes in classification may have ominous repercussions for school personnel (Zimmerman et al., 1986, p. 150). Rubin et al. (1985) add that the reclassification in their study of nearly all TMRs as EMRs based on the WAIS-R IQs could shift placement from one type of class or school to another, with a totally different educational plan and available resources, and perhaps also even present a major shift in funding base (p. 395). These concerns are legitimate. However, such consequences are primarily a function of rigid federal, state, and local guidelines that emphasize the specific IQs earned by an individual, and that adhere rigidly to specific IQ cutoff points. The differences in the norms of any two instru-