ADMINISTRATION, SCORING, AND RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WECHSLER SCALES in .NET

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Mean Scores, SDs, and Correlations between WISC-III and WAIS-III for 16-year-olds WISC-III WAIS-III Meana 10.3 10.9 11.0 10.3 10.6 10.3 10.6 10.8 11.0 10.7 10.6 10.7 SD 3.0 3.3 3.3 2.8 3.2 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.7 WAIS-III vs. WISC-III Difference 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.7 0.1 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.3
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Subtest Vocabulary Similarities Arithmetic Digit Span Information Comprehension Picture Completion Digit Symbol-Coding Block Design Picture Arrangement Symbol Search Object Assembly Scale V-IQ P-IQ FS-IQ Index VCI POI WMIc PSI
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values in the Mean columns are the average of the means of the two administration orders. weighted average was obtained with Fisher s z transformation. cFor WMI, N = 44 NOTE: Adapted from WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual by The Psychological Corporation, 1997, Table 4.3, p. 81, San Antonio, TX: Author. N = 184. Correlations were computed separately for each order of administration in a counterbalanced design and corrected for the variability of the WAIS-III standardization sample.
coefficients for other subtests (Arithmetic, Picture Completion, Block Design, and Object Assembly produced correlations of only .28 .54). These results may not necessarily generalize to
other samples because of a substantial P > V profile of 11 points on the WAIS-R (15 points on the WISC-R). This nonverbal superiority is likely a combination of the nature of the group s
PART III
INTEGRATION AND APPLICATION OF WAIS-III RESEARCH
exceptionality (learning disabled) and ethnic background (40% were Hispanics). Other researchers have also conducted carefully counterbalanced WAIS-R/WISC-R investigations of small samples of exceptional 16-yearolds, for example, 37 hearing-impaired residential students (Meacham, 1985), 30 low-functioning males enrolled in special education programs (Sisemore, 1985), and 30 males in gifted programs (Sisemore, 1985). Mean Performance IQs of the hearing-impaired sample did not differ significantly for the two instruments, with the WAIS-R producing a higher value than the WISC-R by 11 3 point (Meacham, 1985). Similarly, the mean WAIS-R and WISC-R IQs for the special education and gifted students did not differ significantly, except for the 4.4-point advantage in favor of the WAIS-R Verbal IQ for low-functioning 16year-olds (Sisemore, 1985). Grace (1986) administered the WAIS-R (N = 30) or WISC-R (N = 25) randomly to 16-yearold male delinquents. The two groups were well matched on age, race (each group was composed of approximately equal numbers of African Americans and Caucasians), and prior exposure to the tests. Overall, the subjects earned about equal FS-IQs on both tests (WAIS-R mean was 1 2 point higher). Otherwise, the results of the study were quite unusual and inexplicable: (1) WAIS-R produced a 4-point higher V-IQ but a 5-point lower P-IQ; (2) WAIS-R Full Scale IQ was 9 1 2 points higher for Caucasians, but 51 2 points lower for African Americans; and (3) as detailed in 9 regarding P > V profiles for delinquent populations, a substantial characteristic profile emerged for both African Americans and Caucasians on the WISC-R, but for neither race on the WAIS-R. Longitudinal Relationship of WISC-R to WAIS-R Studies conducted with experimental rigor, using normal subjects of average intelligence and diverse exceptional populations, are essential to understand the equivalence (or lack of it) for two
instruments that overlap and that are intended to provide continuous measurement across the life span. However, in real life the WISC-III is administered first and the WAIS-III is later given to exceptional populations who must be reevaluated by law, to clinical patients who have outgrown the WISC-III, and so forth. To date, the research available in the literature remains focused on the older versions of these tests: the WISC-R and WAIS-R. Table 6.8 summarizes several studies that examined the longitudinal relationship of the WISC-R and WAIS-R for clinical samples of deaf and low-functioning adolescents. The intervals between the WISC-R and WAIS-R administrations were 3 to 4 years for all studies listed in Table 6.8, long enough to minimize or negate the impact of any practice effect. Coefficients of correlation between the three WISC-R and WAIS-R IQs were quite substantial, despite the lengthy interval between testings. The median values of .78 for V-IQ, .82 for P-IQ, and .84 for FS-IQ compare favorably to coefficients obtained for children with school learning problems tested twice on the WISC-R with a 3-year interval: correlations of .78 .85 for 367 Caucasian, African American, and Mexican American children (Elliott et al., 1985); and correlations of .70 .74 for 150 students (Oakman & Wilson, 1988). In Elliott et al. s (1985) study, coefficients were significantly higher for Caucasians (.83 .90) than for either African Americans (.61 .70) or Mexican Americans (.66 .81). Neither study of exceptional children tested twice on the WISC-R produced meaningful differences in mean IQs. Oakman and Wilson (1988) found a 11 2-point gain on the second testing, while Elliott et al. (1985) obtained identical mean WISC-R Full Scale IQs of 77 on each administration; Caucasians, African Americans, and Mexican Americans earned virtually identical IQs on both the test and retest. In marked contrast, each WISC-R/WAIS-R study listed in Table 6.8 produced higher IQs on the WAIS-R, although the differences failed to reach significance in the studies by Sattler, Polifka, Polifka, and Hilsen (1984) and Braden and Paquin (1985).