WAIS-III test-retest reliability for the 14 subtests, by age in .NET

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TABLE 6.6 WAIS-III test-retest reliability for the 14 subtests, by age
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Ages 16 29 (N = 100) Ages 30 54 (N = 102) Ages 55 74 (N = 104) Ages 75 89 (N = 88)
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First Second Mean First Second First Second First Second Difference Testing Testing Difference Testing Testing Difference Testing Testing Difference Testing Testing Difference
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Vocabulary (+0.2) 0.2 9.9 10.0 0.1 9.8 10.1 9.6 9.7 10.2 10.1 10.1 10.0 1.1 0.7 10.4 11.2 10.7 10.0 10.0 11.6 10.7 0.3 1.2 0.5 1.6 0.7 10.2 9.9 10.9 9.5 10.0 10.2 10.0 10.0 0.9 10.5 9.9 10.1 10.7 10.2 10.4 11.6 11.0 10.1 9.7 11.2 10.7 10.2 11.0 10.5 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.1 0.7 2.4 10.4 10.3 10.0 10.6 10.2 10.6 12.7 10.7 10.1 10.0 9.6 10.0 10.1 9.9 10.3 9.6 10.2 10.1 10.0 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.1 2.3 1.2 1.0 0.1 1.2 1.0 2.3 10.0 (+0.5) 10.3 10.9 10.8 10.7 10.7 10.9 10.7 12.9 11.4 11.3 10.3 11.5 11.1 12.5 11.2 10.2 10.2 10.1 10.5 10.6 10.6 10.2 10.3 10.2 10.3 10.1 10.2 10.3 (+0.4) (+0.3) (+0.6) (+0.2) (+0.4) (+1.8) (+0.9) (+0.6) (+0.1) (+1.1) (+0.4) (+1.4) (+0.6) 10.6 10.8
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NOTE: Adapted from The Psychological Corporation (1997).
PART III
INTEGRATION AND APPLICATION OF WAIS-III RESEARCH
ages ranging from 19 to 70. Across this heterogeneous group of studies, the authors found Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQs to have median stability coefficients of .89, .85, and .90, respectively. Average gains were 2 points for V-IQ, 8 points for P-IQ, and 5 points for FS-IQ. Catron (1978; Catron & Thompson, 1979) explored the relationship of WAIS retest gains to the interval between test administrations for college undergraduates and found a smaller retest effect for Performance and Full Scale IQs as the interval was increased. Gain scores ranged from 1 to 5 points on the Verbal Scale; the practice effect was only 2 points after 1 or 2 months, and less than 1 point after 4 months. On the Performance Scale, however, a gain of about 1 standard deviation was observed when the second testing immediately followed the first administration (no interval), and a difference of about 1 2 of a standard deviation was still evident after a 4-month interval. For Full Scale IQ, the gain gradually decreased from 8 points with no interval to 4 points for a 4month interval. Matarazzo stressed that all these findings are for groups, and are, therefore, important to internalize, but that information of perhaps equal value to clinicians is the distributions of testretest changes for specific individuals within the various groups. Whereas his detailed analyses of individual and group retest differences for the WAIS (Matarazzo et al., 1979, 1980) and WAIS-R (Matarazzo & Herman, 1984a; Wechsler, 1981) are of interest, these data do not especially generalize to the WAIS-III. However, some of the WAIS-R data may be pertinent, and will be elaborated in the sections that follow. PRACTICE EFFECTS ON THE WAIS-R. Matarazzo and Herman (1984a) combined the two WAIS-R stability samples (Wechsler, 1981, Table 11) into a single group of 119 normal adults, ages 25 54, to study the distributions of changes in IQ on retesting after an interval of about 1 month. The largest losses for anyone in the sample were 12 points on each IQ scale; largest gains were 15 points in V-IQ, 28 points in P-IQ, and 20 points in
FS-IQ. Their analyses showed that meaningful losses in IQ on retesting were rare, occurring less than 10% of the time for Verbal IQ and less than 5% of the time for Performance and Full Scale IQs. Indeed, the practice effect on WAIS-R IQs was so profound that nearly half the adults tested twice improved notably (i.e., more than the error of measurement) on the Verbal Scale, and almost three-quarters of the sample improved substantially on the Performance and Full Scales. Whereas gains in Verbal IQ tended to be modest, improvement on the Performance Scale was typically large and was sometimes dramatic. WAIS-R STABILITY FOR CLINICAL PATIENTS. Gains in intelligence that are sometimes attributed to recovery from an illness or operation or to any intervention designed to improve cognitive abilities may be nothing more than a demonstration of the Wechsler practice effect. The most notable instance of such an occurrence concerns patients who had undergone carotid endarterectomy, surgery for the removal of arteriosclerotic deposits that partially block blood flow in the artery leading from the heart to the brain. Several investigators (e.g., Juolasmaa et al., 1981) interpreted pre- to post-surgery gains on the WAIS as clear-cut evidence of cognitive improvement following the surgery. As optimistic as such a finding would be, Matarazzo et al. (1979) argued that the gains demonstrated by the surgical patients on the retest were not appreciably different from the gains shown by nonpatients. Although Shatz (1981) called the conclusion of no discernible intellectual gains following surgery premature because of uncontrolled variables in the available test-retest studies, a subsequent well-controlled investigation by Parker, Granberg, Nichols, Jones, and Hewett (1983) concluded that gains in test scores of surgical patients after a 6-month interval were not significantly greater than gains displayed by the control groups. WAIS-R stability data for 21 psychiatric and neurological patients (retest intervals ranging from 2 to 144 weeks with a mean of 38 weeks),