ADMINISTRATION, SCORING, AND RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WECHSLER SCALES in .NET

Generator USS Code 128 in .NET ADMINISTRATION, SCORING, AND RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WECHSLER SCALES
ADMINISTRATION, SCORING, AND RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WECHSLER SCALES
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regular basis), and 17 with high experience (licensed clinical psychologists who regularly administer at least 12 tests per year). Jaffe felt it was important to establish specific criteria for level of experience, because previous studies evaluating this variable have differed markedly in their definitions of experienced. Subjects were asked to score two responses to each of 42 items: all 14 Similarities items, 14 of the 16 Comprehension items (excluding numbers 3 and 4, which require two separate ideas for full credit), and 14 randomly selected Vocabulary items. For each item, one response was verbatim from the scoring system provided by Wechsler (1981), and one was from clinical test results. All responses required judgment to score, based on the opinions of a six-member panel. Wechsler s (1981) specific scoring guidelines for the 42 items were given to each subject, along with the general scoring guidelines for each subtest; the only modification in Wechsler s list of specific illustrative responses was exclusion of one response per item, taken from the sample responses, that the subject was asked to score. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. One experimental group was given a cover sheet explaining precisely what they had to do, i.e., score the two responses to each of 42 items using the general and specific scoring criteria that were provided. The second group was given additional information in the cover sheet advising them of the possible ambiguity of responses and the need for referring to the general rules for each subtest; they were told that the study was concerned with scoring difficulties and they were to minimize guessing. The self-report Eysenck Personality Inventory was administered to all subjects to explore the relationships between scoring errors and two personality dimensions: introversion/extraversion and neuroticism/ stability. Jaffe computed two types of error scores, total error and bias error. Total error was simply the sum of all errors, regardless of whether the errors were due to leniency (giving more credit than was legitimately earned) or strictness (assigning a lower score than was deserved); bias error allowed
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lenient and strict errors to cancel each other out, and equaled the net error rate, the degree to which all errors combined to lower or raise the person s total score on the items. The latter error score was included because of research findings (e.g., Sattler & Winger, 1970) showing that examiners errors tend to reflect a halo effect rather than occurring randomly. Jaffe (1983) obtained the following results: 1. Subjects made numerous errors, both on the manual responses and the clinical responses. Across all subtests and items, subjects made errors on an average of nearly half of the responses. 2. The three subtests were differentially susceptible to scoring errors, with significantly more errors occurring on Vocabulary than on Similarities or Comprehension. 3. Bias errors were in the direction of leniency for all subtests, with Comprehension producing the strongest halo effect. 4. Experimental subjects who were given extra precautions to be aware of ambiguities in the responses, to check the general scoring guidelines, and so forth, generally did not differ significantly in their scoring accuracy from subjects who did not receive a special instructional set. The only significant finding was that subjects given the precautions made fewer bias errors. 5. The subjects level of experience was unrelated to scoring accuracy. This finding reinforces similar results from other studies (Kasper, Throne, & Schulman, 1968; Slate & Hunnicutt, 1988). 6. Contrary to Jaffe s hypothesis, high neuroticism subjects made more scoring errors than low neuroticism subjects. 7. Males with high extraversion scores made fewer total errors, whereas females with high extraversion scores made more total errors. Ryan et al. s and Jaffe s studies of scoring error on the WAIS-R reinforce numerous previous
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