Console and Windows Applications SOAP in .NET

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Console and Windows Applications SOAP
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SOAP HTML Internal Web Service
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SOAP Web Server
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Remote Web Service
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Figure 16.1 Web applications may call internal and external Web services. Windows and Console applications may also call Web services.
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Creating Web Services
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1. Create the Web Service 2. Advertise the Web Service
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3. Locate the Web Service
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4. Retrieve the WSDL Document 5. Build proxy and client application 6. Call Web Service method 7. Send result to client
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Web Service Consumer Application
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Web Service Provider
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Figure 16.2 The primary steps involved in creating and consuming a Web service.
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Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
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Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is the protocol used to transfer data to and from the Web service. SOAP is XML based, and at the time of its inception, SOAP leveraged the XML specifications. SOAP is itself a W3C specification. The SOAP protocol consists of three parts. First is the envelope, which defines what is in a message and how to process it. Second is a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of data types that are defined in an application. Third is the remote procedure call (RPC) representation and its RPC responses. Although SOAP can be used in combination with a variety of other protocols, only HTTP is used in relation to SOAP and Web services.
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SOAP Message
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The following code shows an example of a SOAP message that is posted to a Web service to retrieve the latest trade price of a stock:
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<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap= soap:encodingStyle= xmlns:m= Some-URI >
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<soap:Body> <m:GetLastTradePrice> <symbol>MSFT</symbol> </m:GetLastTradePrice> </soap:Body> </soap:Envelope>
The SOAP envelope is the top-level element and includes attributes for the SOAP envelope namespace and the encoding style. Inside the envelope is the SOAP body, which carries the message payload. The namespace that is defined inside the body ( Some-URI ) is the namespace of the Web service provider. When the Web service receives the SOAP envelope, it executes the GetLastTradePrice method, using MSFT as a parameter. The following code is an example of the SOAP message response to the consumer:
<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap= soap:encodingStyle= > <soap:Body> <m:GetLastTradePriceResponse xmlns:m= Some-URI > <Price>52.5</Price> </m:GetLastTradePriceResponse> </soap:Body> </soap:Envelope>
The returned SOAP message resembles the message that was sent, but has the results in the message payload. It s important to note that there is nothing in either message that ties SOAP to HTTP, although when SOAP is used with Web services, HTTP is the protocol used.
SOAP Header
The SOAP header provides a mechanism for extending a message without prior knowledge between the communicating parties. SOAP headers are typically used for authentication and transaction management. The Header element must be the first immediate child element of the SOAP Envelope XML element. An example of a SOAP Header follows:
<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap= soap:encodingStyle= xmlns:m= SomeWebServiceURI > <soap:Header xmlns:soap= > <m:MyHeader> <Username>MyUsername</Username>
Creating Web Services
<Password>MyPassword</Password> </m:MyHeader> </soap:Header> <soap:Body> <m:GetLastTradePriceResponse> <Price>52.5</Price> </m:GetLastTradePriceResponse> </soap:Body> </soap:Envelope>
SOAP Fault
The SOAP Fault element is used to transport error and status information within a SOAP message. If the SOAP Fault element is present, it must be a body entry and may not appear more than once within the Body element. The SOAP Fault element defines four child elements, as shown in Table 16.1. The following code shows a SOAP fault message that might be generated when an attempt is made to get the stock price of an invalid symbol. (For more information on the SOAP protocol, access
Table 16.1 Fault Child Elements Describing the Fault DESCRIPTION Used by the Web service consumer to identify the fault. This element must be present within the SOAP Fault element. SOAP defines a small set of SOAP fault codes that covers the basic SOAP faults. Provides a human-readable explanation of the fault. Faultstring must be present within the SOAP Fault element and must provide information explaining the nature of the fault. Provides information about what caused the fault within the message path. It indicates the source of the fault. The value of the faultactor element is a URI that identifies the source. Applications that are not the ultimate destination of the SOAP message must include the faultactor element in the SOAP Fault element. Holds application-specific error information related to the Body element. It is included if the contents of the Body element could not be successfully processed. The absence of the detail element within the Fault element indicates that the fault is not related to the processing of the Body element.