The Call Stack in Java

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The Call Stack
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As the ActionScript virtual machine executes your code, it has to shift gears all the time. Every time you call a function, the AVM must remember what it was doing, what the scope was, what all the local variables were immediately before the function call. With this information secured away, it can start with a clean slate in the new function, which may be running in a different scope (as a bound method) and with a new set of local variables. Similarly, once it reaches a return statement, it must grab that return value; go back to whatever it was doing before, with all the scope and local variables restored; use the returned value as the evaluation of the function call; and continue executing. Every time the AVM enters a function, it adds a new stack frame onto the call stack. This frame represents the new environment: the scope, the local variables, and the location in the code. The new stack frame is added on the top of previous frames, which provide a trail of crumbs back to where the outermost method was invoked. When the function returns, that executing frame is complete, and it pops off the top of the stack. Finally, the AVM returns to the calling function and its stack frame, which is the new top of the stack. Therefore, the top of the stack always represents the currently executing environment. In the following example, if you create a new A, the stack builds up as the constructor for A calls the constructor for B, and the constructor for B calls the method c(). As each function returns, however, it returns control to the line that called that function, and so on until the end of the constructor of A is reached, and the work of making a new A is over.
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class A { var b:B; public function A() { //1. call stack is A::A b = new B(); //6. call stack is A::A. Now return and stack is empty. } } class B { public function B() {
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25: Using the AVM2 Debugger
//2. call stack is B::B, A::A c(); //5. call stack is B::B, A::A } protected function c():void { //3. call stack is B::c, B::B, A::A return; //4. start going back up } }
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The call stack gives context to the code that s being executed. When you view the contents of the call stack, you re looking at a stack trace. Although you might be looking at a line somewhere in a class, that line is executing as the result of a chain reaction of method calls, which the stack trace is documentation for. Both the Debug Console panel in Flash and the Debug view in Flash Builder give you an interactive view of the call stack. You can use it as a stack trace, to see why the current line of code is being run. In Figure 25-5, you can see that the current method is doSomethingTricky() because it is at the top of the call stack, and it was called by the entry below it, onButtonClick(). In fdb, use bt to print a backtrace, another term for a stack trace. The call stack in the graphical debuggers is interactive: if you click a stack frame below the current one (which is, again, always on top), the code view, current line, and variables view refresh to show you the state of the suspended stack frame. You can see the code that called the method you re currently debugging and the state of the scope and locals in that frame when it invoked the function.
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Step Into
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You can move a line forward in your program with ease. When you do this repeatedly, you are stepping through your code. In general, a step takes you forward one line of the program. But even this de nition has some ambiguity, and there are three kinds of steps you can take to step forward. Step Into takes you to the next line of code to execute, drilling into any calls the current line might make. For example, if this line of code were up next:
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var name:String = getName(); //<--name = "Mr. " + name;
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Step Into would transport you to the rst line of the getName() function, rather than to the line that adds Mr. Step Into drills its way into accessor functions, even if they are implicit. So when you see an innocuous assignment such as the following:
color = child.color;
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you may end up stepping rst into the implicit getter function for color (on child) and then into the implicit setter function for color on this. A single line like this, when executing, can end up jumping to many different parts of a program before nishing. Step Into follows every line that the AVM executes without sparing you details.
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