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Cosmic zone Cosmic ray Atmospheric zone -Particle Proton
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Figure 1.1 Cosmic rays.
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The important point is that the faults due to temporary environmental problems do not need repair because the hardware is physically undamaged. Cosmic rays, however, can give rise to signi cant transient errors, called soft errors [KARN04, MAKI00, HAZU00, ZIEG98, MASS96, CALV94]. Figure 1.1 shows the cosmic ray and its in uence at the earth surface level. In the cosmic environment heavy particles with very high energy from solar winds can penetrate the semiconductor chips in satellite digital systems and cause more than double-bit errors [MUEL99]. Sometimes they can cause physical faults such as latchup in CMOS circuits. A detailed report of eld testing for soft errors due to cosmic rays was presented in 1996 [ZIEG96a, 96b, 96c, OGOR96, SRIN96]. In the report cosmic rays are de ned as particles in solar wind originating in the sun or as galactic particles that enter the solar system striking atmospheric atoms and creating a shower of secondary particles. Most such particles produced by the shower either decay spontaneously or lose energy gradually, and eventually lose all energy in the cascade. Some of these particles may strike the earth. Therefore the cosmic rays at sea level consist mostly of neutrons, protons, pions, muons, electrons, and photons. About 95% of these particles are neutrons with no charge but with the high energy (more than 10 MeV) that causes signi cant soft errors or latchups in electronic circuits. So cosmic rays can create multiple errors. Altitude causes the neutron ux to increase exponentially, and hence the fail rate of electronic circuits at airplane altitude is about one hundred times worse than at terrestrial level. Concrete shielding with several feet of thickness can signi cantly attenuate the ux of these high-energy particles. Figure 1:2 shows how neutrons and other particles, including a-particles, generated by the collision of nuclei in the atmosphere, can strike silicon chips and produce suf cient electron-hole pairs in the chips to impair their functioning.
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Figure 1.2 Electron holes in a silicon chip caused by particles.
A failure is de ned as nonperformance that occurs when a delivered service no longer complies with its speci cations [LAPR92], and a failure is also de ned as nonperformance when the system or component is unable to perform its intended function for a speci ed time under speci ed environmental conditions [LEVE95]. Some types of failure are de ned with respect to speci c conditions. For example, a value failure means that the value of the delivered service does not comply with the speci cation and a timing failure represents a response in incorrect timing, either faster or slower than the speci ed time. A temporary failure means an erroneous behavior at a certain moment lasting only a short time. A crash failure, or catastrophic failure, is the one that stops the mission because the system is completely blocked.
An error is a manifestation of an unexpected fault within a system that is liable to lead to system failure. The transformation of a fault to an error is called fault activation. The mechanism that creates errors in the system and nally provokes a failure is called error propagation. Before provoking a failure, errors can be masked or corrected by some error control mechanisms such as error correcting codes, retries, or triple modular redundancy (TMR) and thus recovered without inducing a system failure. A fault remains in passive mode until an error rst appears at some structure of the system. This occurrence is called an initial activation and the error is called a primitive error. In this case latency is de ned as the mean time between the fault s occurrence and its initial activation as an error. Figure 1:3 presents the causal relationship between fault, error, and failure. Various types of errors can occur, and these different types are covered below.