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abstract class A class with at least one pure virtual function (p 134) abstract method A method that has no meaningful definition and is thus always defined in the derived class (p 133) base class The foundation for inheritance (p 122) composition Mechanism preferred to private inheritance when an IS-A relationship does not hold In composition, an object of class B is said to be composed of an object of class A (and other objects) (P 146) derived class A completely new class that inherits all the properties of a base class, with all the public methods and identical implementations of the base class (p 122) dynamic binding A run-time decision to apply the method corresponding to the actual referenced object Used when a member function is declared to be virtual and the correct method cannot be determined at compile time (p 130) HAS-A relationship The derived class has a (property of the) base class (p 120)
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inheritance The process of deriving a class from a base class without disturbing the implementation of the base class It also allows the design of class hierarchies, such as exception (p 122) IS-A relationship The derived class is a (variation of the) base class (P 1 19) multiple inheritance The process of deriving a class from several base classes (p 147) nonvirtual function Used when the function is invariant over the inheritance hierarchy Static binding is used for nonvirtual functions (p 129) partial overriding The act of augmenting a base class method to perform additional, but not entirely different, tasks The scope operator is used to call a base class method (p 128) polymorphism The ability of a reference or pointer variable to reference or point to objects of several different types When operations are applied to the variable, the operation that is appropriate to the actual referenced object is automatically selected (p 122) private inheritance The process occasionally used to implement a HAS-A relationship Even public members of the base class are hidden (p 146) protected class member Accessible by a derived class but private to every other class (p 124) public inheritance The process by which all public members of the base class remain public in the derived class Public inheritance models an IS-A relationship (p 123) pure virtual function An abstract method (p 135) slicing The loss of inherited data when a derived class object is copied into a base class object (p 147) static bindingloverloading The decision about which function to use made at compile time (p 129) virtual function A function for which dynamic binding is used It should be used if the function is redefined in the inheritance hierarchy (p 130)
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1 Inheritance is private by default A common error is to omit the keyword p u b l i c , which is needed to specify public inheritance
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2 If a base class member function is redefined in a derived class, it should be made virtual Otherwise, the wrong function could be called when accessed through a poinler or reference 3 Base class destructors should be declared as virtual functions Otherwise, the wrong destructor may get called in some cases 4 Constructors can never be declared virtual 5 Objects of an abstract base class cannot be instantiated 6 If the derived class fails to implement any inherited pure virtual function, the derived class becomes abstract and cannot be instantiated, even if it makes no attempts to use the undefined pure virtual function 7 Never redefine a default parameter for a virtual function Default parameters are bound at compile time, which can create an inconsistency with virtual functions that are bound at run time 8 To access a base class member, the scope resolution must be used Otherwise, the scope is the current class 9 Friendship is not inherited 10 In a derived class, the inherited base class members can be initialized only as an aggregate in a constructor's initializer list If these members are public or protected, they may later be read or assigned to individually 1 1 A common error is to declare a virtual destructor in an abstract base class but not provide an implementation (virtual-~ase) or ( virtual-~ase) =O) Both are wrong because the derived class ( destructor needs to call the base class destructor If nothing needs to be done, then use { as the definition 12 If a constructor declaration is provided in the base class, provide the definition, too, for the same reason as in the destructor case 13 The return type in a derived class cannot be redefined to be different from the base class unless they are both pointer or both reference types, and the new return type is type-compatible with the original 14 If the base class has a constant member function F and the derived class attempts to define a nonconstant member function F with an otherwise identical signature, the compiler will warn that the derived F hides the base F Heed the warning and find a way to work around it
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