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31 Write a function template to sort three Comparable objects
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36 In many situations operator<is defined for an object, but you also need operaton Assume that operator== is unavailable Explore the possibility of writing an operator> template that calls
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A SingleBuffer class supports get and putThe SingleBuffer stores a single item and a data member that indicates whether the SingleBuffer is logically empty A put may be applied only to an empty buffer and inserts an item to the buffer A get may be applied only to a nonempty buffer and deletes and returns the contents of the buffer Write a class template to implement SingleBufferThrow an exception to signal an error What is the return type of get and why
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38 Implement an insertion sort that takes a primitive array and its size
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stores them in a vector
3 1 Add a resize member function and a zero-parameter constructor 0
to the matrix class
Templates
311 Write a class template for the Rational class in 2 The
numerator and denominator should have a generic type
3 1 Modify the vector class as follows 2
a Add a function that returns a reference to the internal array b Add a constructor that takes a primitive array and a size c Allow the vector to be constructed with a lower and upper bound that represent the valid index range The size of the array is upper-lower+l d Add a function, f ill,that fills all entries with a given value
4
I lnheritance
As mentioned in 2, an important goal of object-oriented programming is code reuse Just as engineers use components over and over in their designs, programmers should be able to reuse objects rather than repeatedly reimplementing them In 3 we described one mechanism for reuse provided by C++: the template Templates are appropriate if the basic functionality of the code is type-independent The other mechanism for code reuse is inheritance Inheritance allows us to extend the functionality of an object In other words, we can create new types with extended (or restricted) properties of the original type lnheritance goes a long way toward meeting the goal for code reuse In this chapter, we show: how the general principles of inheritance and the object-oriented concept of polymorphism relate to code reuse, how inheritance is implemented in C++, how a collection of classes can be derived from a single abstract class, and how run-time binding decisions, rather than compile-time linking decisions, can be made for these classes
What Is Inheritance
In an IS-A
On one level inheritance is the fundamental object-oriented principle governing the reuse of code among related classes Inheritance models the IS-A relationship In an IS-A relationship, the derived class is a (variation of the) base class For example, a Circle IS-A Shape and a Car IS-A Vehicle However, an Ellipse IS-NOT-A Circle Inheritance relationships form hierarchies For instance, we can extend Car to other classes, as a Foreigncar IS-A Car (and pays tariffs) and a Domesticcar IS-A Car (and does not pay tariffs), and so on
relationship~ the derived class is a of the) base class
In a HAS-A relationship,the derived class has a (instance of the) base class Composition is used to model HAS-A relationships
Another type of relationship is a HAS-A (or IS-COMPOSED-OF) relationship In a HAS-A relationship, the derived class has a (instance of the) base class This type of relationship does not possess the properties that would be natural in an inheritance hierarchy An example of a HAS-A relationship is that a car HAS-A steering w h e e l ~ ~ e n e r a l l ~ , ~ ~ ~ - ~ relationships should not be modeled by inheritance Instead, they should be modeled with the technique of composition, in which the components are simply made private data fields The C++ language itself makes some use of inheritance in implementing its class libraries Two examples are exceptions and files
Exceptions C++ defines in <stdexcept> the class exception There are several kinds of exceptions, including bad-alloc and bad-cas tFigure 4 1 illustrates some of the classes in the exception hierarchy Each is a separate class, but for all of them, the what method can be used to return a (primitive) string that details an error message I/O As shown in Figure 42, the streams hierarchy (istream, i fstream,etc) uses inheritance The streams hierarchy is more complex than shown
In addition, systems such as Visual C++ and Borland CBuilder provide class libraries that can be used to design graphical user interfaces (GUIs) These libraries, which define components such as buttons, choice-lists, textareas, and windows (all in different flavors), make heavy use of inheritance In all cases, the inheritance models an IS-A relationship A button IS-A component A bad-cas t IS-A except ionAn ifstream IS-A istream (but not vice-versa!) Because of IS-A relationships, the fundamental property
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