Preface

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for it, This edition contains less use of inheritance than in the previous edition However, there is a chapter on inheritance, and part of the design patterns chapter touches on inheritance-based patterns For the most part, instructors who are eager to avoid inheritance can do so, and those who want to discuss inheritance will find sufficient material in the text Exceptions: Exception semantics have been standardized and exceptions seem to work on many compilers However, exceptions in C++ involve ugly code, significant complications (eg, if used in conjunction with templates), and probably require discussing inheritance So I use them sparingly in this text A brief discussion of exceptions is provided, and in some places exceptions are thrown in code when warranted However, I generally do not attempt to catch exceptions in any Part I11 code (most of the Standard Library does not attempt to throw exceptions) Namespaces: Namespaces, which are a recent addition to C++, do not work correctly on a large variety of compilers I do not attempt to use namespaces and I import the entire s t d namespace when necessary (even though not great style, it works on the largest number of compilers) Appendix A discusses the namespace issues Recent language additions: The boo1 data type is used throughout The new s t a t i c - c a s t operator is used in preference to the old-style cast Finally, I use e x p l i c i t when appropriate For the most part, other additions are not used (eg, I generally avoid using typename) Standard Library: As previously mentioned, the STL is used throughout, and a safe version (that does extra bounds checking) is available online (and implemented in Part IV) We also use the s t r i n g class and the newer i s t r i n g s t r e a m class that are part of the standard library

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Text Organization

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In this text I introduce C++ and object-oriented programming (particularly abstraction) in Part I I discuss arrays, pointers and some other C++ topics and then go on to discuss the syntax and use of classes, templates, and inheritance The material in these chapters was substantially rewritten New to this edition is an entire chapter on design patterns In Part I1 I discuss Big-Oh and algorithmic paradigms, including recursion and randomization An entire chapter is devoted to sorting, and a separate chapter contains a description of basic data structures I use the STL in presenting the interfaces and running times of the data structures At this

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Preface

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point in the text, the instructor may take several approaches to present the remaining material, including the following two

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I Discuss the corresponding implementations (either the STL versions or the simpler versions) in Part IV as each data structure is described The instructor can ask students to extend the classes in various ways, as suggested in the exercises 2 Show how the STL class is used and cover implementation at a later point in the course The case studies in Part 111 can be used to support this approach As complete implementations are available on every modern C++ compiler (or on the Internet for older compilers) the instructor can use the STL in programming projects Details on using this approach are given shortly

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Part V describes advanced data structures such as splay trees, pairing heaps, and the disjoint set data structure, which can be covered if time permits or, more likely, in a follow-up course

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-by-Text Organization

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Part I consists of ti ve chapters that describe some advanced features of C++ used throughout the text I describes arrays, strings, pointers, references, and structures 2 begins the discussion of object-oriented programming by describing the class mechanism in C++ 3 continues this discussion by examining templates, and 4 illustrates the use of inheritance Several components, including strings and vectors, are written in these chapters 5 discusses some basic design patterns, focusing mostly on object-based patterns such as function objects, wrappers and adapters, iterators, and pairs Some of these patterns (most notably the wrapper pattern) are used later in the text Part I focuses on the basic algorithms and building blocks In 6 T a complete discussion of time complexity and Big-Oh notation is provided, and binary search is also discussed and analyzed 7 is crucial because it covers the STL and argues intuitively what the running time of the supported operations should be for each data structure (The implementation of these data structures in both STL-style and a simplified version, is not provided until Part IV The STL is available on recent compilers) 8 describes recursion by ti rst introducing the notion of proof by induction It also discusses divide-and-conquer, dynamic programming, and backtracking A section describes several recursive numerical algorithms that are used to implement the RSA cryptosystem For many students, the material in the

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second half of 8 is more suitable for a follow-up course 9 describes codes, and analyzes several basic sorting algorithms, including the insertion sort, Shellsort, mergesort, and quicksort, as well as indirect sorting It also proves the classic lower bound for sorting and discusses the 0 related problems of selection Finally, 1 is a short chapter that discusses random numbers, including their generation and use in randomized algorithms Part 111 provides several case studies, and each chapter is organized around a general theme I I illustrates several important techniques by examining games 12 discusses the use of stacks in computer languages by examining an algorithm to check for balanced symbols and the classic operator precedence parsing algorithm Complete implementations with code are provided for both algorithms 13 discusses the basic utilities of file compression and cross-reference generation, and provides a complete implementation of both 14 broadly examines simulation by looking at one problem that can be viewed as a simulation and then at the more classic event-driven simulation Finally, 15 illustrates how data structures are used to implement several shortest path algorithms efficiently for graphs Part IV presents the data structure implementations Implementations that use simple protocols (insert,find,remove variations) are provided In some cases, STL implementations that tend to use more complicated C++ syntax are presented Some mathematics is used in this part, especially in s 19-21, and can be skipped at the discretion of the instructor 16 provides implementations for both stacks and queues First these data structures are implemented using an expanding array; then they are implemented using linked lists The STL versions are discussed at the end of the chapter General linked lists are described in 17Singly linked lists are illustrated with a simple protocol, and the more complex STL version that uses doubly linked lists is provided at the end of the chapter 18 describes trees and illustrates the basic traversal schemes 19 is a detailed chapter that provides several implementations of binary search trees Initially, the basic binary search tree is shown, and then a binary search tree that supports order statistics is derived AVL trees are discussed but not implemented; however, the more practical red-black trees and AAtrees are implemented Then the STL set and map are implemented Finally, the B-tree is examined 20 discusses hash tables and implements the quadratic probing scheme, after examination of a simpler alternative 21 describes the binary heap and examines heapsort and external sorting The STL pr iority-queue is implemented in this chapter Part V contains material suitable for use in a more advanced course or for general reference The algorithms are accessible even at the

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first-year level; however, for completeness sophisticated mathematical analyses were included that are almost certainly beyond the reach of a first-year student 22 describes the splay tree, which is a binary search tree that seems to perform extremely well in practice and is also competitive with the binary heap in some applications that require priority queues 23 describes priority queues that support merging operations and provides an implementation of the pairing heap Finally, 24 examines the classic disjoint set data structure The appendices contain additional C++ reference material Appendix A describes tricky C++ issues, including some unusual operators, 110, and recent language changes Appendix B lists the operators and their precedence Appendix C summarizes some C++ libraries Appendix D describes primitive arrays and strings for those who want details of what is going on under the hood of the v e c t o r and s t r i n g classes

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