algorithms We begin by discussing function templates and then examine class templates in Java

Generation Code-39 in Java algorithms We begin by discussing function templates and then examine class templates
algorithms We begin by discussing function templates and then examine class templates
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The typedef is a simple mechanism to allow generic routines However, it is unsuitable if we want routines with two different types
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A function template is a design for a function
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Instantiation of a template with a particular type, logically creates a new function
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Only one instantiation is created for each parameter-type combination
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Suppose that we want to write a swap routine in Figure 113 for doubles instead of i n t s The logic is identical; we just need to change the type declarations One way to do so is to write the swap routine for an arbitrary O b j e c t and then issue the appropriate t y p e d e f The typedef is a simple mechanism to allow generic routines, as shown in Figure 31 Suppose, however, that we want to use swap for both i n t and double Certainly this use would be acceptable because the two swap routines would have different signatures However, the t y p e d e f would not work because O b j e c t cannot assume both i n t and double simultaneously Fortuitously, C++ provides templates that make it possible to write a routine that can be used for both types A function template is not an actual function; instead, it is a design, or pattern, for what could become an actual function For example, a template for a swap routine is shown in Figure 32 This design is expanded (much like a preprocessor macro) as needed to provide an actual routine If a call to swap with two i n t parameters is made, the compiler will generate a routine from this template, using lines 4-9, with i n t replacing Ob j e c t This expansion instantiates the function template In other words, instantiation of a template with a particular type logically creates a new function The compiler must now verify that the instantiation is legal C++ Some of the checking may have been performed when the template was defined For example, missing semicolons and unbalanced parentheses are easy to check, but some checks cannot be performed that early For instance, o p e r a t o r = might be disallowed for the instantiated type, and that check could only be performed at the point of instantiation In that case the swap operation could not work If the instantiated type does not have a copy constructor but does have o p e r a t o r = , we could rewrite the swap template in Figure 32 to avoid the copy constructor Thus there is occasionally a tradeoff between requiring more operations to be supported by the template parameter and code compactness (and/or efficiency) Figure 33 shows the swap template in use Each call to swap with previously unseen parameter types generates new instantiations Thus if there are two calls to swap ( i n t , i n t ) and one call to swap ( d o u b l e , d o u b l e ) , then there are two instantiations of the swap template: one with ob j e c t of i n t and another with O b j e c t of double (Note: swap is part of the STL, so some compilers may object The online code uses the name swap to avoid potential conflicts)
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typedef double Object;
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/ / Standard swap routine void swap( Object & lhs, Object
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1 / / swap function template 2 / / Object: must have copy constructor and operator= 3 template <class Object> 4 void swap( Object & lhs, Object & rhs ) 5 { 6 Object tmp = lhs; 7 lhs = rhs; 8 rhs = tmp;
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