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Generation Code39 in Java / / Step 1 / / Step 2 / / Step 3 / / Step 4
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Our string class interface is shown in Figure 222 To avoid conflicts with the stringh header file, we store the interface in mystringhAs promised, three data members store the C-style string, the length of the string, and the size of the array that stores the string The array size is at least 1 larger than the string length, but it could be more We provide two accessors (c-s tr and length) that return the C-style string and string length operator+= appends rhs to the current string A set of nonclass functions are also provided for 110 and comparison The I10 functions are not class members because the string is not a first parameter operator [ 1 is used to access
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Classes
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1 #ifndef -MY-STRING-H2 #define MY-STRING-H3 4 #include <iostreamh>
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/ / Old-sty1eh file
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5 6 class string 7 {
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9 10 11 12 13 14
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public: string ( char ch ) ; string( const char *cstring = string( const string & str ) ; -string( ) { delete [ I buffer; 1 const string const string
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// // // //
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Constructor Constructor Copy constructor Destructor
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operator= ( const string operator+=( const string
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rhs ) ; rhs ) ;
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/ / Copy / / Append
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const char *c-str( ) const { return buffer; 1 int length( ) const { return strlength; ) char char
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/ / Return C-style string
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operator[]( int k ) const;// Accessor operator[] operator [ 1 ( int k ) ; / / Mutator operator [ I
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private : int strlength; int bufferlength; char "buffer;
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/ / length of string ( # of characters) / / capacity of buffer / / storage for characters
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ostream istream istream
& & &
operator<<( ostream & out, const string & str operator>>( istream & in, string & str ) ; getline( istream & in, string & str, char delim = '\n' ) ; const const const const const const string string string string string string
bool bool bool bool bool bool
operator==( operator!=( operator< ( operator<=( operator> ( operator>=(
& & &
lhs, lhs, lhs, lhs, lhs, lhs,
const const const const const const
string string string string string string
& & &
rhs rhs rhs rhs rhs rhs
) ; ) ; ); ); ); ) ;
mystringh
A string Class
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 #include <stringh> #include "mystring h" string::string( const char * cstring
if( cstring == NULL ) // cstring = " " ; // strLength = strlen( cstring ) ; // bufferLength = strLength + 1; // buffer = new char[ bufferLength 1 ; / / strcpy( buffer, cstring ) ; //
If NULL pointer use empty string Get length of cstring Set length with ' \ O r Allocate prim string Do the copy
string::string( char ch
strLength = 1; bufferLength = strLength + 1; buffer = new char[ bufferLength 1 ; buffer[ 0 ] = ch; buffer[ 1 ] = ' \ 0 ' ;
string::string( const string
strLength = strlength( ) ; bufferLength = strLength + 1; buffer = new char[ bufferLength 1 ; strcpy( buffer, strbuffer ) ;
// // // //
Get length of str Set length with ' \ O ' Allocate prim string Do the copy
stringcpp (part 1): Constructors
individual characters in the string There are two versions; we explain why there are when we discuss their implementation The comparison functions are deliberately not implemented as class members Implementing them outside the class allows the left-hand side of the comparison operator to be a C-style string or a stringIf one of the operands for a comparison operator is a C-style string, a temporary string will be constructed (by calling the string constructor, which is deliberately not declared explicit) Thus, if strl and str2 are strings,strl== str2, strl=="abU, "abn==str2 arelegal Ifthecomparison functions were class members (in which case we would write only the rhs parameter), " ab"==str2 would not be legal The constructors are shown in Figure 223 and are relatively straightforward: They initialize the three data members The assignment operators (Figure 224) are much more tricky because they involve two issues First,
Objects and Classes
1 const string & string::operator=( const string & rhs ) 2 { 3 if( this ! = &rhs ) / / Alias test 4 { 5 if( bufferLength < rhslength( ) + 1 ) / / If no room 6 ( 7 / / Reclaim old array, compute new size, 8 / / allocate new array 9 delete [ ] buffer; 10 bufferLength = rhslength( ) + 1; 11 buffer = new char[ bufferLength 1; 12 1 13 strLength = rhslength( ) ; / / Set new length 14 strcpy( buffer, rhsbuffer ) ; / / Do the copy 15 1 16 return *this; / / Return reference to self 17 1 18 19 const string & string::operator+=( const string & rhs ) 20 { 21 if( this == &rhs ) / / Alias test: if s+=s 22 ( 23 string copy( rhs ) ; / / Make a copy of rhs 24 return "this += copy; / / Append copy; avoid alias 25 26 int newLength = length( ) + rhslength( ) ; 27 28 if( newLength >= bufferLength ) / / If not enough room 29 { 30 / / Begin the expansion: Allocate more room; use 31 I / 2x space so repeated calls to += are efficient 32 bufferLength = 2 * ( newLength + 1 ) ; 33 char *oldBuffer = buffer; / / Save ptr for old array 34 buffer = new char[ bufferLength 1 ; / / Alloc new array 35 strcpy( buffer, oldBuffer ) ; / / Do the copy 36 delete [ I oldBuffer; / / Reclaim old array 37 } 38 39 strcpy( buffer + length( ) , rhsbuffer ) ; / / Append rhs 40 strLength = newlength; / / Set new length 41 return "this; / / Return reference to self 42 1