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110 friends for the Rational class
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Objects and Classes
2 use of static data members, which are data shared among all instances of the class; and 3 enum,which is a way to store integer class constants
Avoiding Friends
As we discussed at the end of Section 23, classes should have as few friends as possible We can get by with few friend functions if the class's public member functions have enough flexibility, which typically is the case Two functions that are prime candidates for friendship are the input and output functions The input function can often be rewritten by reading basic data, using the data to construct an object, and then copying the object into the reference parameter that is to be the target For example, here is how we can write operator>> for the IntCell class:
istream
operator>>
istream
in, IntCell
int x; in >> x ; if ( !infail ( ) ) val = IntCell( x return in;
Output can often be performed by calling accessors However, a more common technique is to add the public member function print to the class print outputs in exactly the format required by operator<<The signature of the print member function is
public : void print( ostream
out = cout
const;
We can then implement operator<<by calling print:
ostream
operator<<
ostream
out, const IntCell
xprint ( out return out;
A complete example of this procedure is shown in Figure 228
Some ~ o m r n o n i d m
242 Static Class Members
Suppose that we have an obiect that we want all the members of the Rational class to share For instance, suppose that we want to keep track of the number of Rational objects that are currently active What we need is essentially a single global variable because any class member will be local to the instance instances will share and have access of each object, whereas all the ~ational to the global object Unfortunately a global variable also allows access to everyone else, violating information hiding principles In C++ we can declare a static class member5 A static class member is essentially a global variable visible only to class members (if declared private) and whose scope is the same as a class member, not a data member In other words, there is one static member per class instead of one data member per object Our example would work as follows In the private section of the Rational class, we declare
A staticclass member essentially a global variable visible only to class members
private : static int activeInstances:
We could then increment activeInstances in the constructor and decrement it in the destructor In the program, where we normally place definitions of global objects, we need to place the defining declaration
int Rationa1::activeInstances
243 The enum Trick for Integer Class Constants
Occasionally we need a classwide constant For instance, consider the constant ios : : inHere, in is a constant that is shared among all instances of the class iosWe can always simply use the same syntax as in Section 242 putting the word const in front of the type (in both the class interface and defining declaration) If the object is an integral type, two shorthand options are available First, we can avoid the defining declaration by providing the value in the interface, as in
pub1 ic : static const int RED = 0; static const int BLACK = 1;
5 A static class member is different from a static local variable A static local variable is a variable that exists inside a function but has lifetime that extends for the entire program Think of it as a global variable that is accessible only from inside the function in which is declared