/ / Ensures denom >= 0 / / Ensures lowest form in Java

Encoder Code-39 in Java / / Ensures denom >= 0 / / Ensures lowest form
/ / Ensures denom >= 0 / / Ensures lowest form
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The Rational class interface (part 2)
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We allow denom to be 0, to represent either in inity or -in inity (even if numer is also 0) These invariants are maintained internally by applying f ixsigns and reduce, as appropriate Those routines are shown in Figure 214 The gcd routine computes the greatest common divisor of two integers (the first of which rnight be negative) For instance gcd ( 3 5,45)is 5 Computing the greatest common divisor is an interesting problem in its own right and is discussed in Section 84
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Additional C++ Class Features
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1 void Rational::fixSigns( ) 2 i 3 if( denom < 0 ) 4 i 5 denom = -denom; 6 numer = -numer; 7 }
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9 10 void Rational::reduce( ) 11 { 12 IntType d = 1; 13 if( denom ! = 0 & & numer ! = 0 14 15 d = gcd( numer, denom ) ; 16 if( d > 1 ) 17 18 i 19 numer / = d; 20 denom / = d; 21 } 22 1
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Private member routines to keep R a t i o n a l s in normalized format
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The remainder of this section is devoted to examining C++ features that are used in this class-namely, initialization lists, type conversions, operator overloading, and input and output
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InitializationVersus Assignment in the Constructor Revisited
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Line 25 of the R a t i o n a l class interface (see Figure 212) initializes as
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Rational( const IntType & numerator = 0 : numer( numerator ) , denom( 1 ) { 1
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Recall that the sequence preceding the braces is the initializer list Alternatively, the constructor could be written as
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Rational( const IntType & numerator { numer = numerator; denom = 1; 1
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Simple initialization of class members using initializer lists is preferable to assignment in the constructor
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Members are initialized in the order they are declared, not in the order they are encountered in the initialization list Generally, it is best to avoid writing code that depends on this fact
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The difference between the two is as follows The form in the class interface, which uses an initializer list to specify data member initialization, initializes numer and denom using the one i n t - p a r a m e t e r constructor Because the body of the constructor is empty, no further operations are performed The alternative form initializes numer and denom by using the noparameter constructor The reason is that any member not specified in the initializer list is initialized using a zero-parameter constructor The copy assignment operator is then called to perform the two assignments that are in the body of the Rational constructor Imagine that IntType is itself a class that represents arbitrary precision integers In that case the alternative form is wasteful because it first initializes numer and denom to Os, only to overwrite them with assignment copies This procedure could have important repercussions, such as requiring the costly expansion of a dynamically allocated block of memory (we demonstrate this requirement in the string class in Section 26) Because initialization of each class member should usually be done with its own constructor, when possible you should use explicit initializer lists Note, however, that this form is intended for simple cases only If the initialization is not simple (eg, if it allocates memory or error checks are needed), use an assignment Among other things, the order of evaluation of the initializer list is given by the order in which class data members are listed In our case, numer is initialized before denom only because it appears earlier in the listing of data members (of course, this does not apply to assignments in the body of the constructor) If the initialization of numer depended on the initialization of denom being done first, we would have to switch their declaration order If we were to do this, we would need to comment that there is an order dependency If possible, you should avoid order dependencies
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