Data members can be marked mutable to indicate that const-ness should not apply to in Java

Encoding ANSI/AIM Code 39 in Java Data members can be marked mutable to indicate that const-ness should not apply to
3 Data members can be marked mutable to indicate that const-ness should not apply to
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Basic class Syntax
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class (only the interface needs to be seen), separating the implementation from the interface can lead to easier program maintainence by reducing compile times and source file dependencies Further, the implementation source code need not be distributed by the program designers It can be precompiled and left in libraries Figure 24 shows the class interface for Intcell,Figure 25 shows the implementation, and Figure 26 shows a m a i n routine that uses the
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The interface is typically placed in a file that ends with h Source code that requires knowledge of the interface must #include the interface file, which here means that both the implementation file and the file that contains main have the #include directive Occasionally, a complicated project will have files that contain other files, and there is the danger that an interface might be read twice in the course of compiling a file This action can be illegal To guard against it, each header file uses the preprocessor to define a symbol when the class interface is read, as shown on the first two lines in Figure 24 The symbol name, -1ntcel1-H-, should not appear in any other file; usually we construct it from the filename The first line of the interface file tests if the symbol is undefined If so, the file is processed Otherwise, by skipping to the #endif,the file is not processed because we know that we have already read the file
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Use #ifndef and #endif the contents of a header file and prevent multiple inclusion
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#ifndef -1ntCell-H#define -1ntCell-H/ / A class for simulating an integer memory cell
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class IntCell
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public: 9 explicit IntCell( int initialvalue = 0 10 int read( ) const; 11 void write ( int x ) ; 12 13 private: 14 int storedvalue; 15 1; 16 17 #endif
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IntCell class interface, in the file 1ntCellh
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Objects and Classes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
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#include "1ntCellh"
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/ / Construct the IntCell with initialvalue
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IntCell::IntCell( int initialvalue : storedValue( initialvalue )
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/ / Return the stored value
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int IntCell::read(
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return storedvalue;
/ / Store x void IntCell::write( int x
storedvalue = x;
1 IntCell class implementation in file 1ntCellcpp
1 #include "1ntCellh" 2 3 int main( ) 4 I 5 IntCell m; / / Or, IntCell m( 0 ) ; but not IntCell m( 6 7 mwrite( 5 ) ; 8 cout << "Cell contents: " << mread( ) << endl; 9 return 0; 10 11 Figure 26 Program that uses IntCell in file TestlntCellcpp
Scope Operator
The scope operator :: is used refer the scope In a class member function the scope is the class
In the implementation file, which typically ends in cpp, c c , or C,each member function must identifv the class that it is Dart of Otherwise, it would be assumed that the function is in the global scope (and many errors would result) The syntax is ClassName : : memberThe scope operator : : is used to refer to the scope In a class member function, as here, the scope is the class
--- -
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Signatures Must Match Exactly
The signature of an implemented member function must match exactly the signature listed in the class interface Recall that whether a member function is an accessor (via the const at the end) or a mutator is part of the signature Thus an error would result if, for example, the cons t was omitted from (exactly) one of the read signatures in Figures 24 and 25 Note that default parameters are specified in the interface and are omitted in the implementation
const member function declarations are part of the signature
Objects Are Declared Like Primitive Qpes
In C++, an object is declared just like a primitive type On the one hand, the following are legal declarations of an Intcell object:
IntCell obj1; IntCell obj2( 12
/ / Zero parameter constructor
/ / One parameter constructor
On the other hand, the following are incorrect:
IntCell obj3 = 37; IntCell obj4 ( ) ;
/ / Constructor is explicit / / Function declaration
The declaration of o bj 3 is illegal because the one-parameter constructor is explicit It would be legal otherwise (In other words, a declaration that uses the one-parameter constructor must use the parentheses to signify the initial value) The declaration for obj4 states that it is a function (defined elsewhere) that takes no parameters and returns an Intcell