template <class Object> class ListNode in Java

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Object data; ListNode *prev; ListNode *next; ListNode( const Object & d = Object( ) , ListNode * p = NULL, ListNode * n : data( d ) , prev( p ) , next( n ) ( } friend class ConstListItr<Object>; friend class ListItr<Object>; friend class list<Object>;
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Figure 1723 The
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Figure 1723 shows the L i s t N o d e class, which is similar to the LListNode class (see Figure 177) The main difference is that, because we use a doubly linked list, we have both p r e v and n e x t pointers As we showed before, we make all the members private and then make the three remaining classes friends Thus we also illustrate the technique of using an incomplete class declaration Next we consider the l i s t class interface shown in Figure 1724 As mentioned earlier, lines 5 and 6 are t y p e d e f s for the i t e r a t o r and c o n s t - i t e r a t o r At line 42, we use another typedef-simply for convenience When writing member functions, we can now use node instead of using ListNode<Obj e c t > We do so immediately in the declarations of head and t a i l at lines 45 and 46 Note also that the list class keeps track of
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1 template <class Object> 2 class list 3 { 4 public: 5 typedef ListItr<Object> iterator; 6 typedef ConstListItr<Object> const-iterator; 7 8 list( ) ; 9 -list( ) ; 10 11 list( const list & rhs ) ; 12 const list & operator= ( const list & rhs ) ; 13 iterator begin( ) ; 14 15 const-iterator begin( ) const; 16 iterator end( ) ; 17 18 const-iterator end( ) const; 19 20 int size( ) const; 21 boo1 empty( ) const; 22 23 Object & front( ) ; 24 const Object & front( ) const; 25 Object & back( ) ; 26 27 const Object & back( ) const; 28 29 void push-front( const Object & x ) ; 30 void push-back( const Object & x 1 ; 31 void pop-front ( ) ; 32 void pop-back ( ) ; 33 34 iterator insert( iterator itr, const Object & x 35 iterator erase( iterator itr ) ; 36 iterator erase( iterator start, iterator end ) ; 37 friend class ConstListItr<Object>; 38 39 friend class ListItr<Object>; 40 private: 41 42 typedef ListNode<Object> node; 43 44 int thesize; 45 node *head; 46 node *tail; 47 48 void init( ) ; 49 void makeEmpty( ) ; 50 1;
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Figure 1724 The 1ist class interface
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its size in a data member declared at line 44 We use this approach so that the size method can be performed in constant time Almost all the member functions use signatures that we've shown before So, for instance, there are two versions of begin and end,as in the vector class shown in Figure 710 Some unusual lines of code occur at lines 34-39 The three member functions (insert and both erase methods) pass an iterator using call by value instead of by the normal (for nonprimitive objects) constant reference This procedure is safe because the iterator is a small object Also unusual is that the friend declarations do not use const-iterator and iterator directly One of our compilers didn't like it, so we played it safe This rejection illustrates the typical C++ problem of combining too many features at the same time: Often we run into compiler bugs by doing so where we have The implementation of list begins in Figure 1725, a constructor and the Big Three The makeEmpt y and init methods are private helpers init contains the basic functionality of the zero-parameter constructor However, i t is a separate function so that the copy constructor can be implemented by logically using a zero-parameter constructor and operator= All in all, little is new here; we combined a lot of the LList code with the concepts presented in Section 173 Figure 1726 contains the begin,end,size,and empty methods The begin method looks much like the zeroth method of the LList class (see O), Figure 171 except that the iterators are constructed by passing not only a pointer to a node, but also a reference to the list that contains the node This procedure allows additional error checking for the insert and erase methods However, zeroth returns the header, but we want the first node and use its new value as Hence we advance the iterator with operator++, the return value The end,size,and empty methods are one-liners Figure 1727contains the double-ended queue operations All are oneliners that combine calls to begin, end, operator*, operator-- insert,and eraseRecall that the insert method inserts prior to a position, so pusn-back inserts prior to the endmarker, as required In pop-back, note that erase ( --end( ) ) creates a temporary iterator corresponding to the endmarker, retreats the temporary iterator, and uses that iterator to eraseSimilar behavior occurs in back The insert and erase methods are shown in Figure 1728 The assertIsValid routine, called at line 6, throws an exception if itr is not at an insertable location, which could occur if it was never initialized At line 7 we test whether itr belongs to this list, and at line 8 we throw an exception if it does not The rest of the code is the usual splicing already discussed for a doubly linked list At line 14,an iterator representing the newly inserted item is returned
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51
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template <class Object> list<Object>::list( )
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thesize = 0; head = new node; tail = new node; head->next = tail; tail->prev = head;
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template <class Object> list<Object>::-list( ) i makeEmpty( ) ; delete head; delete tail;
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template <class Object> void list<Object>::makeEmpty(
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