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Another important object-oriented principle is polymorphism A polymorphic object can hold objects of several different types When operations are applied to the polymorphic type, the operation appropriate to the actual stored type is automatically selected In C++ polymorphism is implemented as part of inheritance Polymorphism allows us to implement new types (classes) that share common logic The use of inheritance to create these hierarchies distinguishes object-oriented programming from object-based programming, which involves the use of encapsulation and information hiding but not inheritance (We discuss inheritance and polymorphism in 4) In this chapter we describe how C++ uses classes to achieve encapsulation and information hiding A class is the same as a structure except that, by default, all members are inaccessible to the general user of the class Because functions that manipulate the object's state are members of the class, they are accessed by use of the dot member operator ( )-just like any other structure member-and thus are called member functions These functions are also called methods In object-oriented terminology, when we make a call to a member function, we are passing a message the object Besides syntax and improved support for principles such as information hiding, the most obvious difference between object-oriented programming in C++ and typical C procedural programming is philosophical: In C++ the object is in charge
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The use of inheritance create hierarchies distinguishes objectoriented programming from object-based programming,
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A class is the same as a Structure except that, by default, all members are inaccessible
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Functions can be Suppliedas members; these member functions manipulate the object's state
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In this section we discuss the basic syntax of C++ classes More complicated issues are discussed in later sections of this chapter
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To recap briefly, a class in C++ consists of its members These members can be either data or functions The functions are called member functions Each instance of a class is an object Each object contains the data components specified in the class (unless the data components are s t a t i c , a detail that can be safely ignored for now) A member function is used to act on an object Member functions are also called methods' As an example, Figure 21 presents the I n t c e l l class In this class, each instance of ~ n t c e l l - a n I n t c e l l object-contains a single data member, s t o r e d v a l u e Everything else in this particular class is a method
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I We use the terms member function and method synonymously
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1 / / A class for simulating an integer memory cell 2 3 class IntCell 4 I 5 public: 6 7 / / Construct the IntCell Initial value is 0 8 Intcell ( ) 9 I storedvalue = 0; 1 10 11 / / Construct the IntCell Initial value is initialvalue 12 IntCell( int initialvalue ) 13 { storedvalue = initialvalue; I 14 / / Return the stored value 15 16 int read( ) 17 { return storedvalue; I 18 19 / / Change the stored value to x 20 void write( int x ) 21 { storedvalue = x; 1 22 private: 23 24 int storedvalue; 25 I ;
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A complete declaration of an Intcell class
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A public member is visibletoallroutines and may be accessed by any method in any class
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In our example, there are four methods Two of these methods are read and writeThe other two are special methods known as constructors Let us look at some key features of this class declaration First, note the labels public and privateThese labels determine visibility of class members In this example, everything except the storedvalue data member is public; storedvalue is privateA p u b l i c member is visible to all routines and may be accessed by any method in any class A private member is not visible to nonclass routines and may be accessed only by methods in its class (an exception to this rule is discussed in Section 234) Typically, data members are declared private, thus restricting access to internal details of the class, while methods intended for general use are made public Restricting access is also known as information hiding Figure 22 shows the viewpoint from outside the class
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