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1 / / Simple print function 2 template <class Object> 3 void printlist( const LList<Object> & theList 4 ( 5 if( theListisEmptyi ) ) 6 cout << "Empty list" << endl; 7 else
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LListItr<Object> itr = theListfirst( for( ; itrisValid( ) ; itreadvance( ) cout < < itrretrieve( ) << " " ; 1 cout < < endl;
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Figure 1711 The function for printing the contents of a LList
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/ / Return iterator corresponding to the first node matching
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/ / Iterator is not valid if item is not found
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template <class Object> LListItr<Object> LList<Object>::find( const Object LListNode<Object> *p = header->next; while( p ! = NULL p = p->next;
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return LListItr<Object>( p
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Figure 1712 The find routine for the LList class
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Our next routine removes some element x from the list We need to decide what to do if x occurs more than once or not at all Our routine removes the first occurrence of x and does nothing if x is not in the list To make that happen, we find p, which is the cell prior to the one containing x, via a call to findpreviousThe code for implementing the remove routine is shown in Figure 1713 This code is not foolproof: There may be two iterators, and one can be left dangling if the other removes a node The findprevious routine is similar to the find routine and is shown in Figure 1714 The last routine we write here is an insertion routine We pass an element to be inserted and a position p This particular insertion routine inserts an element after position p, as shown in Figure 1715 Note that the insert routine makes no use of the list it is in; it depends only on p The STL list
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1 / / Remove the first occurrence of an item X 2 template <class Object> 3 void LList<Object>::remove( const Object & x 4 { 5 LListNode<Object> *p = findprevious( x ) current; 6 7 if( p->next ! = NULL )
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LListNode<Object> *oldNode = p->next; p->next = p->next->next; / / Bypass delete oldNode;
Figure 1713 The remove routine for the LList class
1 / / Return iterator prior to the first node containing item x 2 template <class Object> 3 LListItr<Object> 4 LList<Object>:: f indprevious ( const Object & x ) const 5 i 6 LListNode<Object> *p = header; 7 8 while( p-znext ! = NULL & & p->next->element ! = x ) 9 p = p->next; 10 11 return LListItr<Object>( p ) ; 12 } Figure 1714 The f indprevious routine-similar with remove
to the find routine-for
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/ / Insert item x after p template <class Object> void LList<Object>:: insert( const Object & x, const LListItr<Object>
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if ( pcurrent ! = NULL ) pcurrent->next = new LListNodecObject>( x, pcurrent->next
Figure 1715 The insertion routine for the LList class
class also makes no use of the list it is in However, in the list class that we write in Section 175 we add tests to ensure that the iterator corresponds to the list We do so by logically adding a reference to the list as an extra data member for the list iterator With the exception of the find and f indprevious routines (and remove,which calls f indprevious), all the operations that we have coded so far take O(1) time The find and f indprevious routines take O(N) time in the worst case because the entire list might need to be traversed if the element either is not found or is last in the list On average the running time is O(N) because on average half the list must be traversed Because the insertion routines consistently allocate LListNode objects, via calls to new,these objects must be reclaimed when they are no longer referenced; otherwise, we have a memory leak We reclaim them by calling deleteWe must do so in several places: in the remove method (which removes 1 node), the makeEmpty method (which removes N nodes), and the destructor (which removes N + 1 nodes, including the header node) Figure 1713 illustrates the general mechanism We save a pointer to the node that is about to be unreferenced After the pointer manipulations bypass the node, we can then call deleteThe order is important: Once a node has been subjected to a delete,its contents are unstable, which means that the node may be used to satisfy a future new request In the code shown in Figure 1713, moving the delete statement up one line will probably not have any adverse affects, depending on how the compiler chooses to do thingsnonetheless, it is incorrect In fact, this action leads to the worst kind of bug: one that might only occasionally give incorrect behavior The makeEmpty routine, which must remove N nodes, and the destructor, which must remove N + 1 nodes seem to be more complicated However, as memory reclamation is often tricky (and tends to lead to a large percentage of errors), you should avoid using delete as much as possible For makeEmpty,we can do so by repeatedly calling remove on the first element (until the list is empty) Thus remove automatically handles memory reclamation For the destructor, we can call makeEmpty and then call delete for the header node Both routines are shown in Figure 1716 In Section 224, we stated that, if the default destructor is unacceptable, the copy assignment operator (operator=) and copy constructor are likely to be unacceptable For operator=,we can give a simple implementation in terms of public list methods, as shown in Figure 1717 This code contains the usual aliasing test and return of *thisPrior to copying, we make the current list empty to avoid leaking memory previously allocated for the list With an empty list, we create the first node and then go down the rhs list, appending new LListNodes to the end of the target list