/ I Stack class in Java

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1 / I Stack class
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linked list implementation
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// / / CONSTRUCTION: with no parameters
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// / / ****x************xpuBLIC OpERATJONS********************* / / void push( x ) / / void pop( )
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Insert x Remove most recently inserted item Object top( ) Return most recently inserted item Object topAndPop( ) Return and remove most recent item boo1 isEmpty( ) Return true if empty; else false void makeEmpty ( ) Remove all items *X****X***********ERRORS*********************x**********
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/ / UnderflowException thrown as needed
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template <class Object> class Stack
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public: Stack( ) : topofstack( NULL Stack( const Stack & rhs ) ; -Stack( ) { makeEmpty( ) ; 1
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boo1 isEmpty( ) const; const Object & top( ) const; void makeEmpty( 1 ; void pop ( ) ; void push( const Object Object topAndPop ( ) ; const Stack
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operator=( const Stack
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private: struct ListNode
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Object element; ListNode *next; ListNode( const Object & theElement, ListNode * n = NULL ) : element( theElement ) , next( n ) I
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ListNode *topofstack;
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Figure 1619 Interface for linked list-based Stack class
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/ / Deep copy template <class Object> const Stack<Gbject> & Stack<@bject>::operator=( const Stack<Object> & rhs
if l this
&rhs
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makeEmpty( ) ; if ( rhsisEmpty( ) return "this;
ListNode *rptr = rhstop0fStack; ListNode *ptr = new ListNode( rptr->element 1 ; topofstack = ptr; for( rptr = rptr->next; rptr ! = NULL; rptr = rptr->next ptr = ptr->next = new ListNode( rptr->element ) ;
1 return *this;
/ / Copy constructor template <class Object> Stack<Object>::Stack( const Stack<Gbject> & rhs
topofstack = NULL; *this = rhs;
Figure 1620 Copy assignment operator and copy constructor for the linked list-based S t a c k class
We have r p t r point at the second item in the r h s list in the f o r loop initialization at line 16 We then loop: r p t r points at a cell containing the next item in the r h s list, and p t r points at the last cell in the newly created stack list At line 16 we direct the loop to continue until the r h s list is exhausted While it is not, we create a new node by using an item in the r h s list and then attach that new node at the end of the new list The attachment is performed by the assignment to p t r - > n e x t at line 17 We must now update p t r (also done at line 17) so that p t r points to the last node in the new list We then advance to the next node in the r h s list in the adjustment
Note that the next pointer Of the last node is NULL by of the
ListNode
constructor
Stacks and Queues
1 / / Insert x into the stack 2 template <class Object> 3 void Stack<Object>::push( const Object & x ) 4 i 5 topofstack = new ListNode( x , topofstack 1 ; 6 1 7 8 / / Remove the most recently inserted item from the stack 9 / / Throws UnderflowException if the stack is empty 10 template <class Object> 11 void Stack<Object>::pop( ) 12 i 13 if ( isEmpty( ) ) 14 throw UnderflowExceptioni ) ; 15 ListNode *oldTop = topofstack; 16 topofstack = topofstack->next; 17 delete oldTop; 18 1
Figure 1621 The push and pop routines for the linked list-based S t a c k class
The stack routines are oneliners
part of the f o r loop When we are done with the loop, everything has been copied over, and we can return Note that the n e x t pointer for the last node in the list is automatically NULL by virtue of the constructor Figure 1620 also contains an implementation of the copy constructor We used the standard idiom of constructing the object in a neutral state and then applied o p e r a t o r = Two more routines are shown in Figure 1621 The p u s h operation is essentially one line of code, in which we allocate a new Li s tNode whose data member contains the item x to be pushed The n e x t pointer for this new node is the original t opof s t a c k This node then becomes the new t o p o f S t a c k We do all this at line 5 The pop operation also is conceptually simple After the obligatory test for emptiness, we save a pointer to the node at the top of the stack We then reset t o p o f s t a c k to the second node in the list and call d e l e t e to remove the popped node Finally, t o p and makeEmpty are straightforward routines and are implemented as shown in Figure 1622 The topAndPop routine simply calls t o p and then pop and is not shown makeEmpty pops the stack until it is empty