Figure 1617 The makeEmpty routine for the array-based Queue class in Java

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Figure 1617 The makeEmpty routine for the array-based Queue class
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162 Linked List Implementations
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The advantage of a linked list implementation is that the excess memory is only one pointer per itemThe disadvantage is that the memory management could be time consuming
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An alternative to the contiguous array implementation is a linked list Recall from Section I 6 that in a linked list, we store each item in a separate object that also contains a pointer to the next object in the list The advantage of the linked list is that the excess memory is only one pointer per item In contrast, a contiguous array implementation uses excess space equal to the number of vacant array items (plus some additional memory during the doubling phase) The linked list advantage can be significant if the vacant array items store uninitialized instances of objects that consume significant space If first-class strings and vectors are used, the advantage isn't all that huge because uninitialized first-class strings and vectors use little space Even so, we discuss the linked list implementations for three reasons 1 An understanding of implementations that might be useful in other languages is important 2 Implementations that use linked lists can be shorter for the queue than the comparable array versions 3 These implementations illustrate the principles behind the more general linked list operations given in 17 For the implementation to be competitive with contiguous array implementations, we must be able to perform the basic linked list operations in constant time Doing so is easy because the changes in the linked list are restricted to the elements at the two ends (front and back) of the list
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In implementing the
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Stack class, the top
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of the stack is represented by the first item in a linked list
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The S t a c k class can be implemented as a linked list in which the top of the stack is represented by the first item in the list, as shown in Figure 1618 To implement a push, we create a new node in the list and attach it as the new first element This node can be allocated by a call to n e w To implement a pop, we merely advance the top of the stack to the second item in the list (if there is one) We should call delete on the old first node to avoid memory leaks An empty stack is represented by an empty linked list Clearly, each operation is performed in constant time because, by restricting operations to the first node, we have made all calculations independent of the size of the list All that remains is the C++ implementation
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Figure 1618 Linked list implementation of the Stack class
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Figure 1619 provides the class interface Lines 34 to 42 give the type declaration for the nodes in the list A Lis tNode consists of two data members: element stores the item and next stores a pointer to the next ListNode in the linked list We provide a constructor for Lis tNode that can be used to execute both
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ListNode * p t r l = new ListNode( x
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ListNode * p t r 2
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new List~ode(x, p t r 2
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Note that the new type ListNode is nested in the Stack class Thus it is not a type in the normal global scope, which is a good thing because it enforces information hiding: The ListNode declaration is certainly an internal detail of the Stack class Moreover, by virtue of the private declaration, it is invisible to the Stack class users Not all compilers implement nested class declarations in conjunction with templates, so you may need to rework the code by removing the ListNode declaration from the Stack class This alternative is clearly less desirable because it weakens the hiding of information The Stack itself is represented by a single data member, topofStack,which is a pointer to the first ListNode in the linked list We use the constructor at line 19 to create an empty stack by setting topofStack to NULLThe destructor declared at line 21 calls the member function makeEmpty to deallocate all the dynamically allocated nodes in the stack makeEmpty works by popping the stack until it is empty The copy assignment operator is shown in Figure 1620 At line 6 we check for aliasing and return immediately if it is detected Otherwise, we can safely make the current object empty The stack is now empty, so if the stack on the right-hand side is empty, we can return immediately This option is checked at line 9 Otherwise, we have at least one item to copy We have ptr point at a newly allocated node that is a copy of the first item in the r h s list at line 13 This item will be at the top of the new stack (line 14)
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The L i s t N o d e declaration is nested in the private section of the S t a c k class, so it is not visible by users of the S t a c k class
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A deep copy of operator=requires that we step through the second stack and allocate new nodes to be placed in the first stack
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