The Standard Template Library in Java

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The Standard Template Library
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template <class RandomIterator, class Comparable> RandomIterator lower-bound( const RandomIterator & begin const RandomIterator & end, const Comparable & x )
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return lower-bound( begin, end, x, less<Comparable>(
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template <class RandomIterator, class Object, class Compare> RandomIterator lower-bound( const RandomIterator & begin, const RandomIterator & end, const Object & x, Compare lessThan )
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RandomIterator low = begin; RandomIterator mid; RandomIterator high = end; while( low < high
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low +
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high
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if ( lessThan ( *mid, x low = mid + 1; else high = mid;
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return low;
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Implementation of lower-bound
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random access iterator If lower-bound is passed iterators that do not support iterator subtraction, a compiler error will result if we attempt to expand the template We use the lower-bound function template in Section 111
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The STL provides a sort algorithm It is called by passing a pair of iterators and an optional predicate that implements the less-than test The sort algorithm requires random access iterators
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template <class RandomIterator> void sort( RandomIterator begin, RandomIterator end
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rearranges the elements in the specified range to be in sorted order, using the natural order
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Implementation of vector with an lterator
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template <class RandomIterator, class Comparator> void sort( RandomIterator begin, RandomIterator end, Comparator lessThan )
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lessThan
Implementation of vector with an lterator
The vector class shown in Section 342 was not iterator-aware The online version of vector is iterator-aware That is, we omitted portions of the online implementation when we discussed the vector implementation In this section we briefly sketch what was omitted Like all of the iterators in the STL, the online code implements an unsafe iterator For instance, * itr when i tr is already at the end marker is not explicitly detected by the STL as an error Neither is ++itr,under the same circumstances Of course, an error is likely to occur, terminating your program abnormally However, the STL will not give you any help in tracking down the problem Our vector class, as described in Section 342, performed error checks on array indexing We can also add error checks for the iterators We do so for all the iterators discussed in Part IV We leave making the vector iterators safe as an exercise in Part IV A vector<~bject> defines vector<~bject>::iterator and vector<Obj ect> : : const-i teratorThis task is most conveniently done with a typedef,as shown in Figure 710 Because pointer hopping pointers satisfy the properties of a random access iterator, we can use pointer types as the iterator! Consequently, lines 9 and 10 define iterator as an obj ec t * and const-iterator as const Object * We then need to provide implementations of begin and end,which return iterators, as done at lines 12 to 20 Note that we provide both accessor and mutator versions The accessor returns a const-iterator, and the mutator returns an iterator This code contains most of the logic used in designing a safe iterator class To do so, we would first need to write two new class templates, ~ e c t o r ~ t e r a t o r const~ector~terator, change the typedefs and and at lines 9 and 10 to reference them Next, we would have to change the bodies of begin and end to return constructed iterators (by calling appropriate constructors for the two new classes) We would construct the iterators by passing a position (0 for begin, size ( ) for end) and this (most likely, these constructors would be not be public, and we would use appropriate friend declarations) We would pass two parameters so that the iterator can store both a current position and a pointer to the vector that it is iterating
STL iterators are not
The Standard Template Library
1 template <class Object> 2 class vector 3 I 4 public: 5 / / Constructors, and other member functions 6 / / See Figure 314, lines 11 to 44 7 / / Iterator stuff: not bounds checked 8 9 typedef Object * iterator; 10 typedef const Object * const-iterator; 11 12 iterator begin ( ) 13 { return &objects[ 0 I ; 1 14 const-iterator begin( ) const 15 { return &objects [ 0 I ; 1 16 17 iterator end( ) 18 { return &objects[ size( ) 1 ; ) 19 const-iterator end( ) const 20 { return &objects [ size( ) I ; 1 21 private: 22 23 int thesize; 24 int thecapacity; 25 Object * objects; 26 I ;