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Node 3 config>lag 1 config>lag# dynamic-cost config>lag# port 2/1/1 2/2/1 config>lag# port-threshold 2 config>lag 2 config>lag# port 4/1/1 4/2/1 config>lag# port-threshold 2
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3/1/13/2/1 action down 5/1/1> action dynamic-cost
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The LAG groups LAG1 and LAG2 are configured as follows: LAG1 has the dynamic-cost parameter configured. If a single link in LAG 1 fails, there are three active links and the port threshold is 2, so the port-threshold action is not executed. However since the dynamic-cost parameter is enabled on the LAG, the cost of LAG1 is dynamically computed to be 100/3 = 33. If another link in LAG1 fails, the number of active links matches the port-threshold and the port-threshold action is executed; therefore, LAG1 is declared operationally down. LAG2 does not have the dynamic-cost parameter configured. If a single link in LAG 2 fails, there are three active links and the port threshold is 2, so the port-threshold action is not executed. Since the dynamic-cost parameter is not enabled on the lag, the cost of LAG2 remains as 100/4 = 25. If another link in LAG2 fails, the number of active links matches the port-threshold and the port-threshold action is executed; therefore, the cost of LAG2 is dynamically calculated as 100/2 = 50. Overall, LAG is a good solution for providing link redundancy between neighboring Ethernet devices. However, if you require end-to-end path redundancy, LAG cannot provide this functionality. In the next section, we examine how Ethernet path redundancy can be achieved.
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4.4 Ethernet Path Redundancy: STP
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In this section, we discuss the second type of redundancy: path redundancy provided via the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). As previously mentioned, path redundancy provides an advantage over link redundancy by protecting you when an entire switch fails, and not just when individual links fail. However, there are some potential problems associated with providing path redundancy because of the nature of Ethernet switches. As you will see shortly, providing redundant Ethernet switch paths can result in broadcast storms due to constant looping of Ethernet frames. They may also lead to FDB table instability as switches might see source addresses coming in on different interfaces (recall the FDB learning process discussed previously).
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In the discussion that follows, the term bridge may be used as a substitute for switch. While a bridge typically only has two ports and switches typically have many more, for discussion purposes in this chapter, they are considered synonymous terms. In addition, STP behaves the same on both types of devices.
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4.4 E T H E r N E T PAT H r ED u N DA NC Y: S T P
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In order to understand the need for STP, you must first appreciate the nature of a loop in an Ethernet network. A loop exists in a network when a frame or packet exits one interface on a device and then re-enters the device on a second interface. Because switches and routers are computers and because computers are designed to perform the same function over and over under the same conditions, typically what will occur is that the switch or router will simply re-send the frame or packet back out the original exit interface. If the frame or packet returns again on the same second interface, the router or switch will again re-send the data back out of the original interface, and so forth and so on indefinitely. As you will see in 5, IP packets have a time to live (TTL) field that gets decremented when each router processes the packet; this prevents an IP packet from existing forever on a network. No such field exists in an Ethernet frame, so other mechanisms must be employed. The looping problem is exacerbated by Ethernet switches (as opposed to IP routers) because Ethernet switches are designed to flood frames out every port when a destination is unknown. In looping scenarios, it is often the case that the FDB table is unstable, resulting in excessive flooding. Without STP, broadcast traffic may increase exponentially because, as the switch receives multiple copies of a frame, it further replicates each frame and transmits them out one or more ports on the switch. Because of the L2 loop, the transmitted frames are received back and replicated again. This results in an exponential increase in Layer 2 traffic in the looped network. Since there is no TTL in Layer 2, this frame is copied and transmitted repeatedly until the switch gets overwhelmed with activity and possibly re-sets or locks up. This scenario is illustrated in Figure 4.8. To see how a bridging loop can occur, consider the case in which no traffic has been transmitted on the network in Figure 4.8. Because no frames have been transmitted by any host, both Switch 1 and Switch 2 have an empty MAC FDB (they have not yet learned any MAC addresses). Let s examine the steps that occur when Host A sends a frame to Host B: 1. Host A sends a frame with the destination MAC address of Host B. One copy of the frame is received by Host B and processed. 2. The original frame from Host A is also received by Switch 1. Switch 1 records the source MAC of Host A to be on Segment 1. Since Switch 1 does not know where Host B is, it replicates the frame and sends it out the port connected to Segment 2.
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