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routers operate at Layer 3 of the OSI model, and so an Ethernet frame would not be forwarded across a router. This boundary or domain that includes all of the Ethernet switches contained by a router boundary is known as a broadcast domain. It is important to understand that within a broadcast domain, every Ethernet device will receive and process all broadcast packets. In the event of a large number of broadcast packets, or broadcast storm, the processing at each station in the broadcast domain can be severely disrupted. This is one of many important functions of routers: They serve as broadcast packet boundaries. In contrast to a broadcast domain, a collision domain exists between devices only within a single wire or hub. A collision domain is a group of Ethernet or Fast Ethernet devices in a CSMA/CD LAN that are connected by repeaters or hubs and that compete for access in the network. Only one device in the collision domain may transmit at any one time, and the other devices in the domain listen to the network to avoid data collisions. A collision domain is sometimes referred to as an Ethernet segment. Devices on a hub are in a single collision domain, whereas each device on a switch has its own collision domain between the device and its individual port. Figure 4.5 illustrates these different domains.
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Figure 4.5 Hubs provide no separation for collision or broadcast domains, switches provide collision domain separation, and routers provide both collision and broadcast domain separation.
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Hub 1 Collision domain, 1 Broadcast domain
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1 Broadcast domain
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2 Collision domains Broadcast domain
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Figure 4.6 further illustrates the concepts of collision and broadcast domains. See if you can determine how many of each domain type exist in the figure (you can find the answer in the review section).
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Figure 4.6 Can you identify the collision and broadcast domains
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4.3 Ethernet Link Redundancy: LAG
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With all networks, it is good design practice to provide for redundancy in the event of a failure. There are two basic types of redundancy available with Ethernet networks: link redundancy and path redundancy. Link redundancy is provided via the Link Aggregation Group (LAG) protocol. Path redundancy is provided by the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). The primary difference between link redundancy and path redundancy is that the former does not provide redundancy in the event of a switch failure. For example, a failure of a single or multiple links between LAG-connected switches would be survivable. However, there are sometimes failures of an entire switch or blade in a switch, in which case, all available links on a particular path are lost. In such a case, full path redundancy would be required. These differences will become more apparent as we discuss each type of redundancy in more detail. A LAG is based on the IEEE 802.3ad standard. LAG allows you to aggregate multiple physical links between Ethernet devices so that they are functionally equivalent to a single logical link. The 802.3ad standard specifies several important requirements for vendor implementations. First, all links in a LAG group must be full-duplex and must have the same speed. Second, the LAG implementation must not reorder frames as they
4. 3 E T H E r N E T LI N k r ED u N DA NC Y: L AG
are transmitted across the LAG group. This means that all frames transmitted between the same source/destination MAC address pair (referred to as a conversation) will be transmitted across the same physical link in the bundle. The result is that some links in the bundle may have more traffic than others, so traffic may not be perfectly loadbalanced across all links. The primary benefits of LAG are that it increases the bandwidth available between two Ethernet devices by grouping up to eight ports into one logical link, and it provides for link redundancy between the devices. The aggregation of multiple physical links allows for statistical load sharing (bearing in mind that source/destination MAC address pair conversations always go over the same physical link) and offers seamless redundancy. If one of the links in the LAG group fails, traffic is re-distributed over the remaining links in less than 1 second. up to eight links can be supported in a single LAG, and up to 64 LAGs can be configured on an Alcatel-Lucent 7750 Sr or Alcatel-Lucent 7450 ESS.