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Figure 3.7 Using a TDM circuit, each PC gets a fixed timeslot for its traffic.
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Frames Timeslots 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
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The frame structures of the DS-1 [ANSI95b] and the European E1 [ITU-T98a] signals are shown in Figure 3.8.
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Figure 3.8 The frame structure for a DS-1 and a European E1 signal.
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Framing and overhead bit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 (a) DS1 frame, 24 channels plus 1 bit of framing and overhead Framing and overhead byte 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 (b) E1 frame, 32 channels with 1 byte for framing and overhead
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The DS-1 signal consists of 24 payload channels plus overhead. The basic frame of each of these signals repeats every 125 s (microseconds), that is, 8,000 times per second. With 8 bits carried in each channel, this gives rise to a basic data rate of 64 Kbps for each channel. The requirement for this data rate stems from the need to sample the analog telephony signal 8,000 times per second and encode each sample in 8 bits. A DS-1 frame contains 24 channels, each consisting of 8 bits, plus 1 framing/overhead bit, leading to a total of 193 bits. Since the frame repeats every 125 s (or 8,000 times a second), the total bit rate of the DS-1 signal is 1.544 Mbps. Similarly, the total bit rate of the E1 signal is 2.048 Mbps (32 channels of 8 bits, repeating every 125 s).
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Broadcast and Shared Access Data Links
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Unlike point-to-point and circuit-switching networks, broadcast networks typically use a shared media to communicate to all the devices that are attached to that shared
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media simultaneously. For data to be reliably delivered from the source to the destination, each of the devices on the shared media is identified by a unique address. The frame that is sourced from the sending device is sent to all the devices sharing the media (broadcasting). All devices will receive the frame, but only the device whose address appears in the frame as the destination address will process the data. The rest of the devices will simply ignore the data. This may seem very inefficient, but it makes the protocol design very simple and supports services that require simultaneous transfer to all nodes on a segment.
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In later chapters, we will discuss technologies that mitigate this inefficiency.
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To transmit data reliably, the device on the shared media must compose the frame, obtain control of the media, and then transmit the information. Since the media is shared, it is possible for multiple stations to transmit their information simultaneously, resulting in a collision. This collision causes data corruption. Depending on the protocol used, an algorithm needs to be followed to ensure a minimum number of collisions and also to ensure proper recovery from collisions. An example of a shared media protocol that is very commonly used today is Ethernet, but other shared media such as wireless LANs and satellites are also common, as shown in Figure 3.9.
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Figure 3.9 Some examples of shared media technologies where every station receives the same information simultaneously.
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Ethernet
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The remainder of this chapter will focus on the Ethernet protocol including its frame type, varieties, and protocol specifications.
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As previously mentioned, it is critical that you have a very solid understanding of the Ethernet protocol because it is by far the dominant Data Link protocol in use in LANs today.
3.3 Ethernet Overview
Ethernet was originally designed by the xerox Corporation, but the company was unsuccessful at launching the technology commercially. Later, xerox joined with the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to commercially standardize a suite of network products that would use the Ethernet technology. The Intel Corporation later joined the group, which then became known as DEC-Intel-Xerox (DIx). DIx developed and published the standard that was used for the original 10-Mbps version of Ethernet. At its inception, the only medium capable of handling these speeds was a multidrop thick coaxial cable. This thicknet cable was very difficult to manage, and it is difficult to overstate how cumbersome it made network cabling. It had a very dense outer shell, and the network connections had to be inserted into the cable via a spike that literally punched through this outer shell to make a connection. (These cable connections were called, appropriately enough, vampire taps and were often unreliable.) There were very restrictive rules for how long the cables could be, how far apart stations had to be on the cable, and so on; and, in general, the original Ethernet standard was not userfriendly. It was, however, the start of something great. Many of these initial requirements no longer exist, and more modern incarnations of Ethernet cabling and specifications bear little resemblance to the original garden hose thick cable and spiked taps. However, many of the core components of the technology have not changed from the early days. Ethernet was and still is a broadcast technology that relies on a shared media for communication. It uses a passive, wait-and-listen protocol called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) much more on this later. It uses data link layer addressing known as Media Access Control (MAC) addresses, and it provides the ability to send a data frame to all devices on the network simultaneously (broadcasting). So while many things have changes from the early days at xerox, some key concepts have remained the same. In fact, even in the early days, Ethernet technology began to take hold of the industry. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) started project 802,