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If the user happens to be in Ottawa, Canada and obtains services from ISP A, and the data server hosting the Google website happens to be in California, USA and is locally accessed by ISP B, then ISP A and ISP B will peer ( connect ) with each other. Peering refers to a mutual agreement between two Internet service providers (ISPs) or, more generally, autonomous systems, to enable the exchange of information between each other s customers by direct or indirect interconnections. The indirect interconnection is via the Internet Exchange Point (IXP). Apart from Web access, which is the predominant Internet service, ISPs can also provide email access with multiple email accounts, data storage and, very recently, broadcast TV services. Service providers can be broadly classified into three types or tiers, based on their size and functions: Tier 1 Tier 1 service providers serve mostly as transit providers. Because of their superior capital and resources, they are able to connect directly to any other major network and do not need to connect to a transit network to obtain service. By definition, a Tier 1 network does not purchase information transit from any other network to reach any other portion of the Internet. Therefore, in order to be a Tier 1 provider, a network must peer with every other Tier 1 network. A new network cannot become a Tier 1 without the implicit approval of every other Tier 1 network, since any one network s refusal to peer with it will prevent the new network from being considered a Tier 1 network. Examples of Tier 1 providers include AT&T, Global Crossing, and NTT Communications. Tier 2 Tier 2 service providers provide transit for some networks and also request transit service from Tier 1 providers to connect to other parts of the Internet. Examples of these types of providers are Bell Canada and British Telecom. Tier 3 Tier 3 service providers are smaller still than Tier 2 providers and require Tier 2 or Tier 1 providers for transiting to parts of the Internet. The Tier 3 service providers can provide reselling services for various Tier 2 providers to their customers. Examples of these types of providers would be most small providers that service only a single city or small regional network. IXPs allow various Tier 1, 2, and 3 providers to exchange Internet data. The IXPs enable information exchange at local points, which avoids having to traverse or backhaul traffic through major points in order to reach the Internet. You can think of an IXP as serving the same purpose as a centralized train station or airline hub. Packets
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arrive from various providers and through the magic of Internet routing protocols are shunted off to the next provider s network for delivery to their ultimate destination. For example, in Figure 1.2, Tier 2 ISP A and Tier 2 ISP B must connect to each other through an IXP or through a Tier 1 ISP that has agreed to forward their traffic. An IXP would also connect multiple Tier 1 providers to each other in a similar fashion.
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Figure 1.2 ISPs exchange data through an IXP.
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Enterprises can connect among their regional offices via Tier 2 or Tier 1 ISPs. An office in one region can connect to a Tier 2 ISP, while an office in another region may connect to a different Tier 2 ISP, but they will require a Tier 1 provider to link the two, as shown in Figure 1.3. If possible, connecting to a single service provider will usually provide increased service levels because all of the network transit points are under the control of a single provider. Some providers will even offer service guarantees for customer traffic as long as it does not leave their network, which can be very important for customers deploying services that are sensitive to delay, such as Voice over IP (VoIP). For example, Figure 1.4 shows how a company may have its offices split into multiple regions around a country. It might be the case that Region 1 and Region 2 have a lot of interoffice application sharing, and thus connecting them to the same Tier 2 would provide adequate performance for less cost than connecting them to a Tier 1 provider. Similarly, Region 3 and Region 4 might have the same type of interoffice application-sharing requirement. In the event that Regions 1 and 2 and Regions 3
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