1.1: B E F O R E T h E I N T E R N E T in .NET

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1.1: B E F O R E T h E I N T E R N E T
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have separate functions. This new family of protocols became known as TCP/IP, and this is how we refer to it for the remainder of this chapter.
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From War Room to Boardroom: The Internet Comes of Age
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In 1980, the U.S. military adopted TCP/IP as a networking standard, and a flag day transition from NCP to TCP/IP was scheduled for ARPANET on January 1, 1983. The transition went reasonably smoothly, and this event marked the beginning of the Internet and the beginning of the end for the ARPANET. Over the years, the ARPANET had become heavily utilized and burdened with congestion, and by 1985, it was reaching the end of its usefulness. In response, the National Science Foundation (NSF) initiated phase 1 development of the NSFNET. The NSFNET was created from a series of regional networks and peer networks. For example, the NASA Science Network was part of the original NSFNET. All of these networks were connected to a major backbone network to form the core NSFNET. The NSFNET in its inception created a hierarchical network architecture and was more distributed than the ARPANET. The bottom tier consisted of university campuses and research institutions. These were connected to the middle tier (the regional networks). The regional networks were then connected to the main backbone network (the highest tier), consisting of six nationally funded supercomputers. For many years, the NSFNET was reserved for research and educational purposes. Government agency networks were reserved for government-oriented missions exclusively. In fact, this policy continued into the early 1990s. however, as more peer networks began to be connected and new and different types of communications evolved, additional pressures mounted on the NSFNET administrators to provide additional connectivity and features. As the NSFNET grew, there began to be a lot of commercial and general purpose interest in obtaining network access and interconnectivity. This, in turn, gave rise to an entire industry of network service providers (also known as Internet service providers, or ISPs) willing to fulfill this need for network connectivity. This growth in network connections began to occur on an international scale as networks outside the United States developed their own internetwork connections. These new and existing entities began to interconnect their networks in various ways, increasing the complexity of the infrastructure. Although the NSFNET clearly did not have the size and scope of the modern Internet, even at the early stages, the foundation was being laid for the evolution to the Internet as we know it today.
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This growth was, in fact, anticipated by the founders of the INWG. The INWG actively encouraged the development of Internet and TCP/IP-related protocols with an eye toward the growth of internetworking. From the very beginning, anyone was allowed to participate in the development process merely by generating ideas for protocols to use on these emerging networks. These original documents were and still are known as Requests For Comments (RFCs). While today s RFCs are more formal and build on a rich and storied tradition of previous RFCs, they are still one of the major driving forces for innovation of new protocols and features. The INWG evolved over the years into the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which is now the standards body for TCP/IP and related protocols. Despite its importance, the IETF has never had an official charter. It still operates as an open organization where anyone representing research/commercial interests can contribute and improve the existing Internet protocols. IETF working groups enable individual contributors to meet and present and review their work with everyone else via the RFC process.
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1.2: Service Providers and Content Providers
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Anyone who can offer Internet connectivity could claim to be a service or Internet provider. The term service provider covers everything from a provider with a multimillion-dollar backbone and infrastructure providing Internet access to Fortune 100 companies, to a provider with a single router and access server in his garage providing dial-up Internet service to family and friends. The primary function of a service provider is to provide a simple connection to the Internet and possibly some very basic services such as email. Traditionally, a service provider did not go beyond this to give the customer additional application content. In contrast, a content provider provides only information that is requested by the home user or small corporation. This information is typically resident on data servers. The access to these data servers occurs via application protocols (which will be discussed later). The most common example of an application protocol is the hTTP (hypertext transfer) protocol. (The group of servers that provide data via the hTTP protocol is often referred to collectively as the World Wide Web, or WWW). By using the hTTP protocol, users can access information from any server that hosts the particular information (the website) that is being sought by the user. For instance, using the hTTP protocol, the user can simply type www.google.com into a web browser such as Internet Explorer and obtain information from the website/data server that hosts www.google.com.
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