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Each time Router 2 receives a packet destined for the 10.1.1.0/24 or 10.1.2.0/24 network, the router pushes the label (20) onto the packet and forwards the packet on the interface that takes the MPLS frame to Router 3. Because Router 3 originated the label (20), the router knows that any MPLS frame coming in with the label (20) is
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destined for a network that is terminated from it. Router 3 removes the label (20) from the frame, does a Layer 3 lookup, and routes the packet to its destination using standard IP forwarding mechanisms. Figure 11.6 further illustrates the LDP set-up process, this time by examining the process as it relates to Router 1 and Router 2.
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Figure 11.6: Router 2 uses LDP to update Router 1 with label information about the networks on Router 3. Router 2 sends label 10 to Router 1, so Router 1 will tag any packets with a destination address of the networks on Router 3 with a 10 tag and forward it to Router 2. Router 2 will swap the 10 tag with a 20 tag and forward the packets on to Router 3.
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In Figure 11.6, LDP is now enabled on Router 1. Router 1 will set up a peering session with Router 2 just as Router 3 did. This time, however, Router 2 will send label information to Router 1. Router 2 checks its routing table for networks that are reachable through it and sends a label to Router 1 to represent those networks. In this case, Router 2 sends a label with a value of 10 to Router 1 to represent the 10.1.1.0/24 and 10.1.2.0/24 networks. Note that the label that is sent to Router 1 is not the same label that Router 2 received from Router 3. Labels are only locally significant, so they only need be unique within a particular MPLS router. Now that Router 1 has label information, it can use MPLS to forward packets for networks 10.1.1.0/24 and 10.1.2.0/24. When Router 1 receives a packet destined for the 10.1.1.0/24 or 10.1.2.0/24 network, Router 1 pushes a label (10) onto the packet
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and sends it to Router 2. At this point, Router 2 s function has changed. Now, when it receives an MPLS frame with the label 10, it swaps (switches) out the label 10, replaces it with the label 20, and sends it to Router 3. Router 3 s function remains the same. Router 3 removes the label 20 and routes the packet to its destination. Figure 11.7 shows the complete LSP setup from Router 1 to Router 3. Router 1 s function is to perform a Layer 3 lookup, and if the packet is destined for one of the networks supported by Router 3, Router 1 pushes (encapsulates the packet in an MPLS frame) the appropriate label onto the packet. This is the function of the ingress LER, to apply the correct label to packets when they enter the provider network. When Router 2 receives the MPLS frame, it examines the label, swaps the ingress label for the appropriate egress label, and sends the frame out of the appropriate interface to its destination. Router 2 now functions as an LSR and is basically performing a Layer 2 switch function, switching the packet from one interface to another and creating a new label header. When receiving the MPLS frame, Router 3 examines the label and pops (removes the packet from the MPLS frame) the label, performs a Layer 3 lookup, and routes the packet to the appropriate network.
Figure 11.7: A complete tunnel is set up between Router 1 and Router 3. Router 1 is the provider ingress and will apply a 10 label to packets with a destination of 10.1.1.0/24 or 10.1.2.0/24. The packet is forwarded to Router 2 with label 10, and Router 2 swaps label 20 for label 10 and forwards it to Router 3. Router 3 pops the label from the packet and forwards the original packet to its destination CE.
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