rOU T E r I D S A n D T H EI r F U nC T IOn in .NET

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9.2 rOU T E r I D S A n D T H EI r F U nC T IOn
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To begin the process of forming an adjacency, routers send Hello messages out of each OSPF-enabled interface. The Hello packets are the basic process by which OSPF routers discover neighboring routers. A router will include the address of other routers it has received Hello updates from, ensuring that neighbor routers will see each other s router ID in their respective Hello updates. The most important fields in a Hello packet are noted in Figure 9.3.
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Figure 9.3 An OSPF Hello packet. The packet must include the router ID, area ID, and Hello timers. The Hello timers include the interval at which Hellos are sent (Hello interval) and the interval that OSPF will wait without receiving a Hello from an adjacent neighbor to declare that neighbor down (dead interval). If authentication is used, then a password will also be included. There is a priority and a DR/BDR field, but these are not used for point-to-point configurations.
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Router ID Area ID * Password * Hello * Interval Dead * Interval Priority DR/BDR
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Router-id of the router originating the hello Indicates the interval in which hello packets are sent by the router, 10 secs by default
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Not used for Point-to-Point Indicates the time OSPF waits without receiving a hello packet before declaring a neighbor adjacency down, 40 secs by default configurable per interface
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Parameters that are denoted with an asterisk in the figure must be set the same on both routers to form an adjacency or to keep an adjacency alive. These parameters are: Area ID Used for OSPF hierarchy; it must be configured even if there is only a single area and it must be the same on all adjacent routers Password Used only for OSPF authentication Hello Interval The interval at which Hello updates are sent; defaults to 10 seconds. Dead Interval The time OSPF waits without receiving a Hello update to mark a neighbor down; defaults to 40 seconds.
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Forming an OSPF Adjacency
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Hello packets are sent between routers to form an adjacency and to proceed to an exchange of link state tables. They are also used as a keep-alive after the adjacency is
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formed. On point-to-point links, OSPF traffic is always sent to the reserved multicast address 224.0.0.5. Although Hello messages are important, they are only the beginning of the process of forming an adjacency. Let s examine the entire process of forming an adjacency from beginning to end. In Figure 9.4, routers r1 and r2 have been rebooted and therefore need to form a new adjacency.
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Figure 9.4 Routers R1 and R2 have been rebooted and need to form an adjacency. They are initially in the OSPF down state. The routers begin sending OSPF Hello packets and proceed to the OSPF init state. Once the routers see their own router ID in a neighbor s Hello updates, they move to the two-way state and are ready to begin an exchange of link state database information.
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Consider the case where R1 and R2 are rebooted, they need to re-create their adjacency
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R1 Router ID 1.1.1.1
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R2 Router ID 2.2.2.2
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OSPF State = DOWN OSPF State = INIT OSPF State = 2-Way
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Hello (RID = 1.1.1.1 Neighbors = 0) Hello (RID = 2.2.2.2 Neighbors = 1.1.1.1) Hello (RID = 1.1.1.1 Neighbors = 2.2.2.2)
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OSPF State = DOWN OSPF State = INIT OSPF State = 2-Way
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The process of forming an adjacency proceeds through several distinct stages: 1. When both routers are first powered up, they are in the OSPF down state. 2. Both OSPF routers send OSPF Hello packets to discover each other and proceed to the init state. 3. When the discovery process is complete, the routers are in a two-way state and are ready to exchange routing information. Once routers have moved to the two-way state, this indicates that they are ready to begin the exchange of their link state database information. This process begins when the routers move from the two-way state to the ExStart state. In the ExStart state, both routers send database description (DBD) packets to establish a master slave relationship. The highest router ID becomes the master. Maximum
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