The IS-IS Link State Routing Protocol in .NET

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The IS-IS Link State Routing Protocol
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IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System) is another popular link state routing protocol. Although it has some significant differences from OSPF, IS-IS uses the same databases and the same SPF algorithm and has a similar approach to flooding updates through the network.
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OSPF is a typical link state protocol and uses several techniques to ensure each router has a loop-free topological view of the network and to achieve fast convergence time. OSPF begins the process of building a topological view of the network by sending Hello packets out on each of its connected networks. These Hello packets are sent to a specific multicast address and are picked up by any OSPF routers on a common network. In order to ensure two-way communication, the Hello packets include a list of all the other OSPF routers that a given router has received Hello packets from. Therefore, a router knows it is on a common network segment with other OSPF routers when it sees Hellos with its own information in the update. Once OSPF routers detect the Hello updates from each other, they begin an exchange of network database information with the ultimate purpose of building a common view of the network. When the routers have completed this exchange of information, they are said to have formed an adjacency. note how similar the process of forming an adjacency seems to the process distance vector protocols use to exchange routing tables, covered in 8. And, indeed,
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in some ways the process is very similar. However, there are some very specific differences. Primarily, adjacent routers are exchanging topology information, not routing tables. The information in the link state database allows each router to build an independent routing table based on a common view of the network. This point needs to be understood at the outset of any OSPF discussion. Each OSPF router uses the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm to determine a loop-free view of each destination in the network from its link state database. This database is built up from information about its own connected networks, information from adjacent routers, and information originated from other OSPF routers in the network via a flooding process. OSPF propagates information not only to its neighboring, adjacent routers, but to all OSPF routers throughout the network. It does this by flooding updates to all OSPF routers. These updates are known as Link State Advertisements (LSAs). There are several different types of LSAs, but the one of primary interest is the router LSA (type 1). A router LSA describes a router and its connected links. This is the information that is flooded by the routers throughout the OSPF network. When there is a change to any link in the network, the affected routers will update all their adjacent neighbors, and the neighbors will, in turn, flood this information to other adjacent routers in a reliable manner. OSPF runs directly on top of the IP protocol and implements its own reliable transmission methods to ensure that updates are not lost even over an unreliable network transport.
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The Shortest Path First Algorithm
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Once a router receives an LSA, it updates the information in its link state database and then calculates a shortest path tree to all network destinations with itself as the root. The exact SPF algorithm is complex, but the basic principle is that a router will create a tree view of the network with itself as the root and paths to all other routers and links as branches on a tree. The algorithm ensures that there is only a single path to any given network and that it is the lowest cost to that network. This ensures that the view each router creates is loop-free and the shortest path to each destination hence the Shortest Path First algorithm.
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