IP Forwarding Using the Routing Table in .NET

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IP Forwarding Using the Routing Table
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The basic process of IP routing is best illustrated with an example. Examine Figure 8.2, paying particular attention to the routing tables for each router that is shown.
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Figure 8.1 Routing protocols can be divided into IGPs and EGPs. IGPs can be further divided into distance vector and link state protocols.
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Routing Protocols
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IP routing populates the routing table with routes Static Dynamic
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Explicitly define next hop on every router/ Define default route
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C h a p t e r 8 n I n t roduC t Ion t o I p rou t I ng
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Figure 8.2 The basic process of IP forwarding. Each router examines an ingress packet s destination address and searches for a match in its routing table. If a matching route is found, the packet is forwarded out of the designated interface. Each router will reframe the L2 header but leave the IP and upper layers unchanged.
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IP = 1.1.1.2 MAC = A Gateway = 1.1.1.1-B IP = 2.2.2.2 MAC = D Source FCS Data 1.1.1.2 Destination WAN 2.2.2.2 POS/PPP IP = 2.2.2.1 MAC = C Destination S D 2.2.2.2 C D 2699 Network 1.1.1.0/24 3.3.3.0/24 2.2.2.0/24 Type Direct Direct Remote Nbr Y Hops 0 0 2 Network 2.2.2.0/24 3.3.3.0/24 1.1.1.0/24 Type Direct Direct Remote Nbr X Hops 0 0 2
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IP = 1.1.1.1 MAC = B Source FCS Data 1.1.1.2
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IP = 3.3.3.1 Destination S D 2.2.2.2 A B
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IP = 3.3.3.2 Source FCS Data 1.1.1.2
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Assuming that the routing tables exist on the routers in this figure, the basic flow of a packet of data through a network can be described as follows: 1. Device A (1.1.1.2) needs to send data to Server D (2.2.2.2). Because Device A is not located on the same Local Area network (LAn) segment as Device D, Device A must use the default gateway (1.1.1.1) for the LAn segment. Device A issues an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) request for the 1.1.1.1 address to learn the media Access Control (mAC) address of the gateway. The router responds with the mAC B address. Device A can now encapsulate the data, as shown in the top block diagram in the figure. note that the source and destination IP addresses identify the overall source and destination devices; the frame source and destination addresses identify the path across one Ethernet segment. 2. When the frame arrives at Router B, the router removes the L2 header and trailer, examines the IP header, checks the routing table for an entry that matches the destination IP address in the IP packet, and determines that the data needs to be sent to Router C. Router B determines this by finding the entry for the 2.2.2.0/24 network in its routing table and getting the next hop (nH) value, which in this case is IP-C, that is, Router C. To send the data, Router B encapsulates the data in a Packet Over Sonet (POS)/Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) frame and forwards the data.
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8.1 I P ROU T I nG C OnC EP T S A n D PU R P O S E S
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3. Router C removes the IP datagram from the PPP frame and checks its routing table. Because the destination IP network is directly connected to its Ethernet port, Router C checks its ARP cache to find the destination mAC address. (note that network 2.2.2.0/24 shows as Direct in Router C s routing table.) When the destination L2 mAC address is determined, Router C creates the frame of data and forwards the data to Server D. note that the source and destination IP addressing did not change throughout the movement of the data. However, the L2 framing changed over each segment that the packet traversed. The IP address identifies a device within the entire network topology; the L2 address identifies a device on that segment only. Figure 8.2 illustrated a very simple routing table for Routers B and C, and in very small networks the actual routing tables may, in fact, have very few routes. However, in most networks, the routing tables are much larger. Listing 8.1 illustrates the output of a routing table from an Alcatel-Lucent 7750 SR.
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Listing 8.1 Routing table output
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Listing 8.1 Routing table output A:PE1# show router route-table ========================================================================= Route Table (Router: Base) ========================================================================= Dest Prefix Type Proto Age Pref Next Hop[Interface Name] Metric ------------------------------------------------------------------------10.1.2.0/24 Local Local 03d23h08m 0 to-p2r1 0 10.1.3.0/24 Local Local 03d23h08m 0 to-p3r1 0 10.1.4.0/24 Local Local 04d00h34m 0 to-p4r1 0 10.2.3.0/24 Remote OSPF 00h41m00s 10 10.1.2.21 2000 10.2.4.0/24 Remote OSPF 00h41m00s 10 10.1.2.21 2000 10.3.4.0/24 Remote OSPF 04d00h16m 10 10.1.3.31 2000
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