The UDP Header in .NET

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The UDP Header
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The UDP header is shown in Figure 7.9.
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Figure 7.9 The UDP header contains only port, length, and checksum fields. It does not have many of the fields that the TCP header has because UDP is a much simpler transport protocol.
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Source Port Length Data
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Destination Port Checksum
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The UDP header is obviously very simple compared to the TCP header. There are no synchronization, sequence, or acknowledgment fields. The header only contains the source and destination application port number, a length field for the length of
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the data, and a checksum. Therefore, the UDP datagram has very little overhead and is useful for applications that are real-time data streams such as Voice Over IP, or applications that require only simple query-response services such as DnS or RPC. Other applications that use UDP include the Simple network Management Protocol (SnMP) and DhCP (recall our previous discussion of DhCP in 6).
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UDP Similarities with TCP
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Despite the differences with TCP, UDP does show some similarities with its more sophisticated cousin owing to their common requirement to function as a transport protocol. For example, UDP is similar to TCP in its use of port numbers to identify the receiving and sending application processes. UDP uses the port numbers in the multiplexing and de-multiplexing operations. This function is necessary to allow UDP (and TCP) to provide services to many upper-layer applications at the same time. Figure 7.10 illustrates this multiplexing aspect of UDP and includes the port numbers for a few well-known UDP applications.
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Figure 7.10 UDP uses port numbers to multiplex applications just as with TCP. Some of the more common UDP applications are DNS, DHCP, and TFTP.
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Multiplexing and De-multiplexing
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The following are some of the most common well-known UDP port numbers: Port 53 Domain name Service (DnS) Port 67 Dynamic host Configuration Protocol (DhCP)
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7. 3 US e R DATAgR A M PRO TO C O L (U DP)
Port 69 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) Port 123 network Timing Protocol (nTP) Port 161 Simple network Management Protocol (SnMP) Port 520 Routing Information Protocol (RIP) In the next section, we discuss how TCP and UDP use port numbers to multiplex conversations to many upper-layer applications simultaneously.
7.4 Port Numbers and Sockets
Although they differ in numerous respects, both TCP and UDP contain a source and destination port number in their headers. These port numbers allow multiple applications to use the transport protocol simultaneously on the same physical connection. This capability is known as transport-level multiplexing. If several transport sessions are active for a system on the network, the data is de-multiplexed based on the source address and port number when the data arrives. This allows TCP or UDP to identify the unique application process that the incoming data is destined for. Typically, a server application listens for connections on a well-known port. This means that all incoming data destined for that port number is passed up the protocol stack to that application. The client application connects to the well-known port number of the application in order to establish communication. Servers are not required to use a particular well-known port, but the client application must know the port to connect to so it is advantageous to use specific port numbers for commonly used applications. For example, the well-known port for hTTP (Web Services) is TCP port 80. When the web server is started, the server will typically listen for client connection requests on TCP port 80. Client requests will be made to TCP port 80, and the requests will be passed to the web server to respond. In some cases, the web server may be configured to listen to a TCP port other than 80. For example, some web servers are configured to listen on TCP port 8080. In this case, the client must know to connect to TCP port 8080. If the request is made to TCP port 80, there will be no response since there is no process listening to TCP port 80. Figure 7.11 illustrates some of the most common TCP and UDP ports. You should become familiar with these ports.