C h a p t e r 7 n t r a ns p ort L ay e r s e rv iC e s t C p a n d U dp in .NET

Encoding Code 128A in .NET C h a p t e r 7 n t r a ns p ort L ay e r s e rv iC e s t C p a n d U dp
C h a p t e r 7 n t r a ns p ort L ay e r s e rv iC e s t C p a n d U dp
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If a TCP sender waits to receive acknowledgement for each segment that it sends before sending another segment, the effective throughput of the connection can be greatly limited over the bandwidth that is supported by the transmission media. This is not significant on a high-speed LAn because the acknowledgements are received very quickly. however, if the network Round Trip Time (RTT) is long, the sender may spend a significant amount of time waiting for acknowledgements. To increase the overall throughput on TCP connections, TCP allows the sender to send more than one segment without waiting for an acknowledgement. This provides a higher overall throughput because TCP spends less time waiting for acknowledgements. however, there is a danger of overwhelming the TCP receiver with too much data. To avoid overwhelming the receiver, the amount of data that can be sent to the receiver before receiving an acknowledgment must be controlled. To accomplish this, the received data is buffered in a preset amount of buffer space until it is requested by the application. The amount of buffer space is specified in the TCP header window-size parameter. When the receiver sends an acknowledgement, the receiver s TCP header sets the value of the window-size parameter to specify the amount of buffer space (in bytes) that is available. This is the maximum amount of data that the sender can send before it receives the next acknowledgement. If the receiver s buffer becomes full, the receiver sends a window size of 0 and the sender cannot transmit any more data. When the receiving application requests the data and the TCP buffer space is available, the receiver sends an updated window size and the sender can start to transmit more data. The window value is always set by the receiver, which provides a flow control mechanism for the receiver. Figure 7.6 illustrates an example of TCP flow control in which the receiver is receiving data faster than it can process it and therefore advertises a window size of 0 to halt the transfer of data from the sender. The TCP flow control process works as follows: 1. The sender received an ACK from a previous transmission that indicates a window size of 5,000 bytes. 2. The sender has 3,000 bytes to send and transmits them in three 1,000-byte segments, one after the other. 3. The receiver buffers the received data and sends an ACK to acknowledge all the received data. The receiver sets the window size to 2,000.
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7.2 T R A nSP O RT C On T RO L PRO TO C O L (TC P)
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Figure 7.6 The sender is transmitting data faster than the host can receive it. The first advertised window size is 5,000 in the first acknowledgment. After additional data is received, the receiver reduces its window size to 2,000 in the next acknowledgment. After still more data is received, the receiver reduces its window size to 0, effectively halting the sender from receiving any additional data until the receiver's buffer is cleared and it sends a non-zero window size to the sender. At this point, the sender can resume its transmission.
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ACK number 27000, window = 5000 SEQ number 27000 SEQ number 28000 SEQ number 29000 1000 bytes data 1000 bytes data 1000 bytes data 3000 bytes buffered
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4. The sender has more data to send. Because the last window size was 2,000, the sender cannot send more than 2,000 bytes. This data is sent in two 1,000-byte segments. 5. The receiver buffers the 2,000 bytes as they are received. Because the application has not requested any data, the initial 3,000 bytes received are still being buffered. 6. The receiver s buffer is now full, and an ACK with a window value of 0 is sent. 7. even if the sender has more data to send, the sender must not transmit any more data because the window size is currently 0. 8. The application requests data from TCP, and the 5,000 bytes are taken from the buffer. The buffer is now empty, and an ACK is transmitted to re-set the window size to 5,000. 9. When the sender receives the new window size, the sender can now transmit more data.
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