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4. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the UDP protocol A. Reliable data transfer B. Connectionless operation C. no flow control D. Appropriate for real-time traffic 5. Which of the following TCP flags is not matched with the correct definition A. SYn Indicates the start of a TCP connection. B. ACK Acknowledges that a TCP segment has been received. C. FIn Indicates the closing of a TCP session. D. RST Re-sets the sequence numbers for a TCP session. You will find the answers to each of these questions in Appendix A. You can also use the CD that accompanies this book to take all the assessment tests and review the answers.
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7.1 Understanding the Transport Layer
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As previously discussed, the transport layer is Layer 4 of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. The transport layer is designed to provide end-to-end control and information transfer of data sent from upper-layer applications. The goal of the transport layer is to relieve the upper layers from the need to provide reliable data transfer over an unreliable network protocol (such as Internet Protocol (IP)). The transport layer is the first layer of the OSI model that is concerned with ensuring the accurate delivery of data from one host to another. In the TCP/IP stack, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provide services very similar to the OSI transport protocols and are therefore often referred to as transport or Layer 4 protocols. Internet applications such as Web browsing and email transfer use the services of the transport protocols. If the application needs a high level of service, such as reliable data transfer and flow control, the application typically uses TCP for data transfer as it provides these capabilities. If an application needs a simpler service with less overhead, the application may use UDP and perform any additional checking of data delivery itself.
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Although most higher-level protocols use TCP or UDP, there are a few higher-level protocols that do not use either of them. For example, the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol uses IP datagrams directly and does not use a transport layer protocol at all.
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The transport layer protocols that are defined in the OSI model provide a wide range of services. TP0 (Transport Protocol 0) provides the lowest level of service, and TP4 (Transport Protocol 4) provides the highest level of service. The services provided by TP4 are very similar to those provided by TCP. Both TP4 and TCP are built to provide a reliable, connection-oriented, end-to-end transport service on top of an unreliable network service. The network service may lose packets, store packets, deliver packets in the wrong order, or even duplicate packets. Both protocols must be able to deal with the most severe problems (e.g., a subnetwork stores valid packets and sends them at a later date). Both TP4 and TCP have connect, transfer, and disconnect phases, and their principles of operation during these phases are also quite similar. An application such as email that needs to transfer data across the Internet will use the services of an Internet transport protocol. email uses TCP, because email needs a
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reliable data transfer service. The application data is first passed to the TCP services layer. The TCP layer then divides the application data into segments, if necessary (if, e.g., the amount of application data is larger than a single TCP segment can accommodate). each TCP segment contains a TCP header. The size of the segments is based on the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size of the Layer 2 networks that are expected to be used for the transfer. The TCP segments are then passed to the IP services layer, where they are delivered across the network as IP datagrams. This encapsulation process is shown in Figure 7.1.
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Figure 7.1 The application data is passed to the TCP layer, where it is divided into TCP segments and a TCP header is added to each segment. Each TCP segment is then passed to the IP layer, where an IP header is added before transmission onto the underlying data link layer.
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