Working with Lists in .NET

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Working with Lists
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Lists are the primary structures you work with while programming in AutoLISP. As you work with this chapter you will begin to understand the use of lists to modify objects (also called entities) in the AutoCAD database, and in a variety of other contexts with AutoLISP. AutoCAD represents all object data in a list that contains many smaller lists, but the lists are simple to use and manipulate.
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Using lists for coordinates
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A list is always enclosed in parentheses with spaces between the elements of the list. One common use for lists is for coordinates, as shown in the following example:
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(1.0 3.5 2.0)
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This list represents the X,Y,Z coordinates 1.0,3.5,2.0. You often need to extract one or more of the elements in a list. Table 35-1 shows the common list extraction functions using the example list (1.0 3.5 2.0).
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35 Exploring AutoLISP Further
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Table 35-1 Basic List Extraction Functions
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Example Output 1.0 (3.5 2.0) 3.5 2.0
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Description Returns the first element in a list Removes the first element from a list Returns the second element in a list Returns the third element in a list
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For more flexibility, you can use the NTH function. Use the NTH function to access any element in a list by passing two arguments that specify the number of the element (items are numbered starting from zero) and the list that you want. The name of the list is usually a variable set with SETQ:
(setq corner (list 1.0 3.5 2.0))
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In this example, (nth 0 corner) returns 1.0 because 1.0 is the first item in the list corner. The LIST function creates a list. If all the items in a list are constant values (not variables), you can use the QUOTE function to create a list. You can use a single quote (the same as an apostrophe on the keyboard) as a shortcut for the QUOTE function. The following two functions are equivalent:
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(setq corner (list 1.0 3.5 2.0)) (setq corner (1.0 3.5 2.0))
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Many more AutoLISP list extraction functions are detailed in the AutoLISP Function Synopsis Appendix of the Visual LISP Developer s Guide. Look under Basic Functions, then List Manipulation Functions. You can go a long way by remembering the functions listed here. Crystal ucc - 12 implementationwith visual
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Creating dotted pairs
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A dotted pair is a special type of list that contains only two elements. Some AutoLISP functions do not accept dotted pairs as an argument, but they are used to represent AutoCAD database objects. To construct a dotted pair, use the CONS function:
(cons 2.1 4.5)
This example returns (2.1 . 4.5). This list type is known as a dotted pair because it contains exactly two elements, and the elements are separated by a period or dot.
Part VII Programming AutoCAD
Step-by-Step: Working with AutoLISP Lists
1. Start a new drawing using the Start from Scratch option. 2. Choose Tools AutoLISP Visual LISP Editor to open Visual LISP. 3. In the Visual LISP Console window, type (setq endpt '(3.5 2.0 1.4)) . AutoLISP returns (3.5 2.0 1.4). 4. Continue in the Visual LISP Console. Type (car endpt) . AutoLISP returns 3.5. 5. Type (cadr endpt) . AutoLISP returns 2.0. 6. Type (cdr endpt) . AutoLISP returns (2.0 1.4). 7. Type (nth 1 endpt) . AutoLISP returns 2.0. Do not save your drawing.
Setting Conditions
Often you want to execute a procedure based on a certain condition. One way of doing this is with the IF statement, which does one thing if a statement is true and another thing if it is false. In other words, the operation is conditioned on the truth of a certain statement. Looping is an important part of programming. Frequently you want to execute a procedure over and over until the routine has finished operating on all the target objects or items. Looping sets up the condition that determines when the operation starts, the number of objects upon which the routine operates, and when the operation ends.