SHEAR STRENGTH in .NET

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SHEAR STRENGTH
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The shear strength of tabby is probably about 50 percent of the compressive strength, ranging from 35 to 80 percent. Shear strength must be determined when evaluating a tabby structure for lateral loads such as wind and earthquake. The model codes are beginning to mandate that suf cient testing be undertaken
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Stress Strain Curve
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FIGURE 12-3 Typical tabby ruins, Coastal Georgia.
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in historic buildings to determine the shear strength of unreinforced masonry buildings for seismic evaluation. Although tabby is not a ductile material, seismic enhancement of tabby structures can be accomplished by increasing the ductility of the total system of walls, oors, and roofs acting together. By tying oor and roof framing to tabby walls while allowing subtle yielding of the joints between the components, the ductility of the total system can be enhanced.
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STRESS STRAIN CURVE
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Concrete is usually tested by lling 6-inch-diameter by 12-inch-high cylindrical molds with concrete during job placement. These cylinders are allowed to set at the jobsite and are then transported to a testing laboratory to cure for 7 or 28 days. Out of a quantity of ve cylinders, two usually are tested at 7 days, two tested at 28 days, and one held in reserve. The samples are molded in accordance with ASTM C-31 and tested in accordance with ASTM C-39 by breaking them in a hydraulically powered compression machine that records load applied versus deformation. The strength at 28 days is the compressive strength, which is speci ed for concrete. For example: 3000 psi concrete is actually 3000 psi @ 28 days concrete. Obviously, historic tabby cannot be sampled fresh and must be removed by being cut or cored from the structure.
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Tabby: Engineering Characteristics of a Vernacular Construction Material
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The testing of a cylinder of tabby or a test prism cut from a tabby wall should yield a stress strain curve when stress is plotted against strain. The modulus of elasticity of a tabby sample can then be obtained. The results of this test are a measure of the stiffness of the material, and are useful in determining the stability of unbraced walls.
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TESTING TABBY
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Many of the methods of testing concrete and masonry can be applied to tabby. Because of its continuity, which is superior to unit masonry, testing can be applied easily to samples, assuming that the samples can be removed, transported, trimmed, and capped without crumbling. Olivia Alison, curator of the Telfair Museum of Art, saved several cores obtained from HVAC work completed at the Owens-Thomas House at the Telfair Museum of Art in Savannah. These cores, 45/8 inches in diameter, were taken from the thick interior walls of the mansion.
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FIGURE 12-4 The cores were obtained from holes made through the walls for piping.
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Two cores were transported to the Froehling & Robertson, Inc., of ce in Raleigh, trimmed, capped, and tested in a Forney 500,000-pound-capacity testing machine.
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Testing Tabby
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FIGURE 12-5 The two samples were capped in similar fashion to concrete cylinders.
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The core samples A and B failed at an ultimate load of 14,945 pounds, or 890 psi, and 15,499 or 923 psi, respectively.
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FIGURE 12-6 The tabby cores were tested in a 500,000pound-capacity machine.
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In situ tests that have been developed for masonry can be applied to tabby. As with masonry and concrete, obtaining accurate values for compression and shear is important. Unit weight is a physical property often overlooked, but important for analysis.
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Tabby: Engineering Characteristics of a Vernacular Construction Material
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WALL CONSTRUCTION
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Tabby walls are proportioned so that buckling due to slenderness is not a problem. Use of the basic equation for unreinforced masonry or concrete walls shows that a height to thickness ratio of 10 to 1 does not cause a reduction in strength due to slenderness. The eccentric loading due to timber trusses or large oor beams probably can be ignored if distributed on a thick wood plate. Because of its relatively low strengths, tabby performs well when uniformly loaded. The support of a post or beam on a tabby wall is problematic when concentrated loads are not distributed, such as on a wood plate or brick masonry block. At St. Helena s Episcopal Church in Beaufort, South Carolina, the brick masonry sidewalls are supported on a tabby foundation wall that is 26 inches thick. The computed design pressure for the combined dead load and live load of 6.8 psi is low when compared to the 350 psi compressive strength obtained by Sickels-Taves. In St. Helena s we have a fairly uniform load. There are no cracks in the sidewalls related to settlement caused by failure in the tabby. Stucco and plaster applied to tabby walls not only protect them but give them greater strength. A thorough analysis would include these materials in a composite section. The reapplication of these surface treatments provides an opportunity for reinforcing a tabby wall with metal lath, although corrosive environments may dictate that a stainless steel lath be used. The stucco layer can conceal earthquake or wind anchors, which may be required to tie oor and roof structures to tabby walls.