Timber, Glulam, and Conservation in .NET

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Timber, Glulam, and Conservation
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amounts of deterioration in their bases. The analysis indicated that the steeple frame acted much less stiff with one or both these joints disconnected. Subsequent to Hurricane Hugo, I was contacted by Craig Bennett, P.E. of Cummings and McCrady, Inc. architects, in Charleston through a recommendation from materials conservator George T. Fore of Raleigh, North Carolina. George Fore produced a condition analysis and conservation study of the carpentry, masonry, plaster and nishes, and various details. He also provided framing details for the steeple as well as evidence of racking of the upper structure due to Hurricane Hugo. His report located areas of deteriorated wood within the framework. To determine the amount of lean in the steeple a surveying instrument was set in the window of a nearby of ce building, but measurements were inconclusive. Upon inspection on a day with ve to ten mile per hour gusts, Craig Bennett led the author on a tour up into the tower in similar fashion to the tours afforded through the years to dignitaries visiting Charleston such as George Washington and the Marquis de Lafayette. On those occasions apparently it was common practice to afford such dignitaries a view of the city . The analysis of a steeple should consider wind pressure in four directions. Overall, stability depends on anchorage to the building s foundations. Some steeples consist of a spire connected to a bell tower. In these cases, the analysis must include the steeple frame and its connection to the bell tower, whether masonry or stone. Steeples may consist of freestanding timber structures or timber structures where one or two walls are integrated into endwall framing. Many steeples bear on the endwall of the church with two supports and with two supports on the rst interior roof truss. In many cases the two interior posts may pass through a balcony structure. Endwalls may be timber frames or masonry walls. No matter what the con guration, wind and seismic forces should be applied in the transverse direction across the ridge and in the longitudinal direction parallel to the ridge. Many steeples lean towards the nave in situations where support is shared between an endwall and a less stiff roof truss. Even with a rigid support of timber posts and balcony or narthex wall framing, a steeple will lean if the endwall support is a non-yielding masonry wall. In these cases, a small amount of shrinkage across the grain in several large timber plates can cause a dramatic lean in a tall steeple towards the nave. For ease of analysis the timber frame of a steeple may be reduced to its primary and secondary framing. Rigidity may depend on x-braces, or up or down braces, or knee braces. A preliminary analysis will reveal whether the braces are resisting tension or compression forces. If the computed tension is high, with the ability of the connection to resist tension insuf cient, all such tension members should be deleted and the program run again. The computer model must account for continuity or discontinuity through joints. For steeples
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with securely fastened sheathing or panels, this additional stiffness afforded to the frame should be accounted for in the computer model. Some steeples, consisting of square, hexagonal, and octagonal sections, which were erected in a telescoping fashion, sometimes with transitional sections between, are dif cult to accurately analyze without three dimensional capability. In our report on May 11, 1992 we presented a simple analysis of the steeple which allowed us to consider a replacement-in-kind option which does not rely on supplemental steel reinforcing. We applied a 48 to 54 psf wind load to the vertical projection of one frame. From the 1988 Standard Building Code, we utilized a Use Factor of 1.00 because it is highly unlikely that failure of the steeple would affect 300 or more occupants in the sanctuary. The limited use of a church sanctuary to primarily one day a week is another reason for selecting the lower Use Factor. To the steeple frame, we applied a support condition which consisted of the approximate stiffness of the two portal frames. Each portal frame consisted of two gallery level columns and two 2 inch 8 inch knee braces. We deleted the contribution of the knee brace which was in tension in determining the stiffness of the portal frame. We applied a horizontal 1000 pound unit load to the portal frame in order to derive the spring constant. To simulate the steeple with the base of the gallery columns not tied down, we placed a roller support with a spring constant in the Y direction at the bottom of the windward column in the portal frame. Using the stiffness of the deteriorated portal frame we re-ran the steeple frame with new spring constant and the lantern column on the windward side omitted. We used a Modulus of Elasticity of 1600 ksi and limited Fc (compression parallel to grain) to between 1200 psi and 1700 psi and Ft to 1100 psi. The analysis provided the following computed horizontal de ection of the top of the steeple frame:
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