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Research may yield information useful in the evaluation, rehabilitation, or renovation of the historic structure. Original plans, construction photographs, and written or oral accounts may provide clues to the original design or construction methodology. Old textbooks or materials handbooks may provide design methods and design strengths of various materials.
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Historic Structures: The Role of the Structural Engineer
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The structural engineer must be familiar with the properties of materials such as timber, steel, cast iron, wrought iron, stone, brick masonry, terra cotta, and reinforced concrete. Patented oor or roof systems composed of various materials might appear only in manufacturer s literature, with little or no design information available.
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Reinforcing steel in older concrete buildings may be square, round, or hexagonal in cross-section with various types of deformations and exhibiting various physical properties. Early reinforcing steel was produced as plain and deformed steel in structural, intermediate, and hard grades. Structural grade was normally used unless speci ed otherwise. Structural engineers should obtain a copy of CRSI Engineering Data Report, no. 11, titled Evaluation of Reinforcing Steel in Old Reinforced Concrete Structures. 3 The rst speci cations for reinforcing steel were developed in 1910 by the Association of American Steel Manufacturers. In 1911, the American Society for Testing and Materials adopted standard speci cation A15 for billet steel concrete reinforcing bars. Minimum working stresses and yield strengths for these and other early speci cations are presented in the CRSI report. The most dif cult problem in evaluating historic reinforced concrete structures is determining the size and location of the reinforcing steel. Various instruments now available may be used for such purposes, but should be veri ed by exposing the reinforcing steel in noncritical locations to visual inspection. Development lengths, bending and cutoff details, and effective depths must be determined. The material properties of both the steel and concrete should be determined by testing. Samples of reinforcing steel suitable for testing can usually be obtained without affecting the structural adequacy of an existing structure if the locations are carefully selected. A preliminary structural analysis aids in locating areas of low stress suitable for sampling. Nondestructive load testing of complete exural members can be employed to verify calculated de ections. Accurate methods are still needed to aid engineers in evaluating the effects of voids, cracks, and deteriorated reinforcing.
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Lime-sand mortar, commonly used in structures located above water level, is of great importance in the repair and restoration of historic buildings. The structural engineer interested in historic preservation should be familiar with masonry restoration speci cations.
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Brick Masonry Restoration
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Mortar for face brick should match the original mortar in color, texture, density, and porosity. It should have strength equal or less than that of the original mortar. New mortar should have hardness equal to or less than that of the original brick, as determined by testing. The color of mortar used for repointing should be matched to the original by matching the color of original aggregates and mortar components as closely as possible. An archeological search may uncover ingredients of the original job mixed mortar, such as oyster shells, in the soil strata at the site in the builder s trench, which contains other construction debris. The density and strength of historic brick units are a function of their position in the kiln and how well they were red. Salmon brick, which are lightly burned, were typically reserved for the center of a wall and the harder, better burned, brick used as exterior face brick. Because of the extreme variations in their strength and durability, the use of salvaged brick should be discouraged. There are manufacturers who can match old brick very accurately and several manufacturers who are making bricks by the old methods. These bricks and a compatible lime mortar design mix are what is required to match the brick masonry of historic buildings. Repointing brick masonry is a waterproofing procedure and not a solution for structural problems. The repointing process is a critical procedure that should be done in carefully selected areas with great care.4 Materials engineers should become familiar with the components of historic mortars, and in that light review the methods for sampling and testing of masonry. The Brick Institute of America, Technical Notes on Brick Construction, no. 39A, reviews procedures for testing brick prisms.5 The standard ASTM methods of tests for masonry assemblages are especially applicable to the testing of historic masonry because of the possible variation in the mortar and brick strengths. The performance of historic mortar and brick can be evaluated in this way, not as individual components, but as they would perform together in the wall. Of course, obtaining suitable undisturbed samples for testing can be a problem with fragile materials. Once a replacement brick is selected and the original mortar approximated, prism testing of replacement masonry should yield information regarding allowable stresses that may be used in design. Mortar analysis and mix design should be accompanied by strength tests that can be evaluated by a materials testing engineer. There has been a tendency in the eld of historic preservation to select brick and mortar so that they merely look right when placed alongside original masonry. The structural engineer can best determine that strength characteristics of replacement masonry materials are as compatible as the color and texture.
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