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Slippage, rotation, shrinkage, or the lack of continuity in a timber joint is dif cult to allow for in a chord-plane frame analysis of a timber truss. Multiple chord trusses will invariably appear stiffer when analyzed, even when all joints are free to rotate in the computer model. Structural engineers are aware that it is very dif cult to produce a true hinge or a true xed joint in the actual structure. Joints in timber trusses may act somewhere between the two causing a very different distribution of forces than produced by the analysis. How does one model a half-lapped and notched joint in an indeterminate frame How about the problem of describing the intersecting member of a multiple chord truss where half of the member section in each direction passes through a joint and all pieces nailed together with wrought iron spikes When analyzing a timber structure, the structural engineer must remember that wood is a orthotropic material with unique properties parallel and perpendicular to grain. Not only are properties in tension, compression, and shear unique for various species, but also the modulus of elasticity varies with grain direction. The moduli of elasticity along longitudinal, radial, and tangential axes of wood vary between species and with speci c gravity and moisture content. A computer program for the analysis of wood structures should include the
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A Repair Philosophy
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12 constants needed to describe the elastic behavior of wood. Three moduli of elasticity (E), three moduli of rigidity (G), and six Poisson s ratios can be found in the Wood Handbook for some common species. For timber design and analysis, today s computer programs should be using the relationships between stress and strain, which have been worked out for homogenous, orthotropic materials. The ideal timber analysis program would input species, speci c gravity, and moisture content. Obviously, with such a tool we could vary the moisture content to re ect the drying out of a timber frame or truss during a long period of service. We could then better understand the effects of shrinkage in members and joints.
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When repairing timber trusses it is better to reinforce than replace members or connections. Epoxy has been used with success to ll and consolidate areas of decayed wood. If it is necessary to replace individual members, it is important to not modify the con guration of the existing truss unless the action of the truss is easily understood. In many timber structures it is not the members themselves which are critical elements but rather the connections. Connections made with cut or wrought nails are dif cult to evaluate. Hardwood dowels, iron pins, cast iron seats or keys, saw-tooth splices, scarf joints, mortise and tenon joints, shear connectors, metal hangers, and anchors vary in capacity, depending on the direction of the load with respect to the angle of the grain. A review of the lateral bracing of historic roof trusses in many cases will indicate that although the members and connections can withstand very high forces, the mode of failure would be buckling of the truss at much lower stress levels. The addition of appropriate bracing may be the only required repair. Because of its availability, controlled moisture content, and known design values, glued laminated timber should not be overlooked as a replacement for large timber members. Pressure-treated wood should be speci ed as replacement material for timbers in contact with masonry or in an area susceptible to moisture. In reinforcing members or connections, the structural engineer must be very familiar with the National Design Speci cation for Wood Construction of the National Forest Products Association.2 Design values, edge distances, and installation procedures are speci ed for shear plates, split rings, nails, screws, lag screws, and bolts.
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