EFFECTS OF THE HYDROMETEORS ON RADIO PROPAGATION in .NET

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EFFECTS OF THE HYDROMETEORS ON RADIO PROPAGATION
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and horizontal polarizations expressed by ARMS r A 2 A2 H V dB=km 2 6:76
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It is quite reasonable to take the rms values for comparisons of rain attenuation, as some measurements are not stated by polarization factors. Here, we use the empirical formula that was given for the calculations of the ECS and three different drop size distributions: (1) The rst one is the Singapore raindrop size distribution model with the following parameters [15,16]: N0 6256:64 bm 3 mm 1 c; a 5:44 b 0:197775 6:77a
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(2) The second one is the M P raindrop size distribution model with the following parameters [18]: N0 16000 bm 3 mm 1 c; a 8:2 b 0:21 6:77b
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(3) The third one is the J T raindrop size distribution model with the following parameters [17]: N0 2800 bm 3 mm 1 c; a 6 b 0:21 6:77c
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Next, we use the empirical Formula (6.75), obtained from the Lin-Chen model, and apply it to the three raindrop sizes mentioned above. Figures 6.10a and 6.10b show a comparison between the emprirical formula in (6.75) and the Saunder s model for a macrocell area rR ! 10 km . Figures 6.11a and 6.11b are for microcell areas rR 2 3 km . From Figure 6.10a, it is clear that there is a better match between the Saunder s model and the Lin-Chen model for the J T and M P drop size distributions rather than the Singapore raindrop size distribution at 12.5 GHz. At 30 GHz, from Figure 6.10b, a good match between the Saunder s and the LinChen models is demonstrated for the M P drop size distribution, but not for the J T drop size distribution case. The same tendency is observed for microcell areas (see Figs. 6.11a,b). However, there is a signi cant difference in the achieved rain attenuation between the macro- and microcells, if we compare the Saunder s and the Lin-Chen model for the M P drop size distribution. Equation (6.62) was used to compare the Saunder s model to the Crane model, where a knowledge of speci c rain attenuation A, allows us to calculate the rain loss excess L, as the product of the speci c parameter A and the length of radio path through the layer containing rain, that is, L ArR . Comparisons of path loss caused by speci c rain attenuation versus the rain intensity, [in mm/h], obtained from Saunder s model and the Crane model at
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EFFECTS OF THE TROPOSPHERE ON RADIO PROPAGATION
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Macro Cell Link Budget Lin Chen Vs Saunders Model at 12.5 GHz 165 RMSSingapore -1 RMSMP -2 RMSJT -3 Saunders -4
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Rain Attenuation [dB]
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50 Rain Intensity [mm/h] (a)
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Macro Cell Link Budget Lin Chen Vs Saunders Model at 30 GHz
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260 RMSSingapore -1 RMSMP -2 RMSJT -3 Saunders -4 1
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Rain Attenuation [dB]
220 4 2 200 3 180
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50 Rain Intensity [mm/h] (b)
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FIGURE 6.10(a,b). Path loss versus rain intensity for a macrocell at 12.5 and 30 GHz.
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EFFECTS OF THE HYDROMETEORS ON RADIO PROPAGATION
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Micro Cell Link Budget- Lin Chen Vs Model at 12.5 GHz RMS Singap ore-1 190 RMSMP-2 RMSJT-3 Saunders-4 1
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50 Rain Intensity [mm/h] (a)
Micro Cell Link Budget- Lin Chen Vs Saunders Model at 30 GHz 400 1 350 Rain Altenuation [dB] RMS Singap ore-1 RMSMP-2 RMSJT-3 Saunders-4
250 3 200
50 Rain Intensity [mm/h]
(b )
FIGURE 6.11(a,b). Path loss versus rain intensity for a microcell at 12.5 and 30 GHz.
EFFECTS OF THE TROPOSPHERE ON RADIO PROPAGATION
frequencies of 12.5 and 30 GHz are shown in Figures 6.12a and 6.12b for a macrocell area rR ! 10 km , and Figures 6.13a and 6.13b for microcell areas rR 2 3 km . From the comparisons shown in Figures 6.12a and 6.13a, it follows that there is good matching between the Saunder s and the Crane model (with the average deviation of 2 dB for macrocell areas and the average deviation of 5 dB for microcell areas) for all rain intensities at 12.5 GHz. The same tendency appears in the results shown in Figures 6.12b and 6.13b, with an average deviation of 4 dB for macrocell areas and an average deviation of 7 dB for microcell areas for rain intensity in the range of 10 100 mm/h. On the other hand, there is not a good match between the Saunder s model and the Crane model, from which we got the average deviation of 10 dB for macrocell areas and the average deviation of 20 dB for microcell areas, for rain intensity in the range of 100 150 mm/h. As the rain intensity increases this difference becomes even more predominant. There is a signi cant difference in rain attenuation between macro- and microcells. The path loss caused by rain attenuation reaches 270 dB, at 30 GHz, for micro cell areas versus the 200 dB attenuation that occurs in the macrocell areas. All these results are very important for designers of land-satellite link performance, because in the radio path through a microcell area containing intensive rain, there is much more signal attenuation observed than in radio paths through macrocell areas, where the areas of intensive rain cover only few percentages of the total radio path. 6.2.2. Effects of Clouds and Fog In the cloud models described below, a distinction between cloud cover and sky cover must be explained. Sky cover is an observer s view of the cover of the sky dome, whereas cloud cover can be used to describe areas that are smaller or larger than the oor space of the sky dome. Cloud Models. There have been several proposed mathematical formulations for the probability distribution of the sky cover. Each of them uses the variable x ranging from zero (for clear conditions) to 1.0 (for overcast conditions). Each model claims to have versatile statistical characteristics to simulate the U-shaped curves of the sky cover. The First Cloud Cover Model. The Beta distribution is an early cloud model [7,36] whose density function is given by f x G a b a 1 x 1 x b 1 ; 0 G a G b x 1; a; b > 0: 6:78a
In this formula pairs of values of the two parameters (a,b) are given in some 29 regional types that cover the world, for the four midseason months, for two times of the day.