PREDICTION OF OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADAPTIVE ANTENNAS in .NET

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PREDICTION OF OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADAPTIVE ANTENNAS
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FIGURE 13.9. (Continued)
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From changes to the antenna tilt from a negative to a positive direction in the vertical (elevation) plane, it is clearly seen that when the tilt is directed up from the horizon (b > 0), most of the energy arrives from the areas located far from the RX antenna. This is caused by multipath components of the total signal because of the propagation along the two streets. At the same time, when the tilt is directed down from horizon (b < 0) most of the energy arriving at the receiving (RX) antenna is located in the direction of the receiver (i.e., around the pseudo-LOS direction).
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13.2.2. Azimuth-Dependence of the Base Station Antenna Maximum Loop Now we will turn the array of the antenna to the maximum azimuth direction angle of j0 5 and 50 from the north direction. These simulated variants are shown in Figures 13.10a,b by the 2D and 3D radio maps for j0 5 and j0 50, respectively.
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Figure 13.10a shows the situation when the RX antenna is turned left from the original direction and most of the energy is received from the azimuth direction of j0 5 ; more energy comes from street #1 and less energy is arriving from the street #2 (see Fig. 13.11). This result differs from that obtained in the real situation shown by Figures 10.11 and 10.12. In the situation described by Figure 13.10b, the energy, arriving from the azimuth direction of j0 50 , is about 0.8 0.9 (compared to Wmax ), that is, at the same order with the rays energy arriving from the street #1. In this situation, as shown by Figure 13.12, a signi cant part of the total energy comes from directions far from street #1 and street #2. The side effect, when the antenna is oriented as shown in Figure 13.12, gives the same strong in uence on signal energy azimuth redistribution as in the cases described by Figures 10.11 and 10.12. 13.2.3. Directivity-Dependence of the Base Station Antenna e Now, we will analyze the normalized signal power spectrum W y; j for different values of the directivity of the antenna k 10; 20; 30. Figures 13.13a 13.13c show
e FIGURE 13.10. (a) The normalized power, W t; j , j0 5 : 2D and 3D plane. (b) The e normalized power, W t; j , j0 50 : 2D and 3D plane.
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FIGURE 13.11. Detailed map for the situation where the azimuth direction is j 5 .
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these cases. From this virtual numerical experiment, we can understand how the increment of directivity of the RX antenna affects the decrease of the arriving power of the multipath components in the total signal power received by the base station antenna. It is clearly seen that with an increase in the directivity of the antenna k in
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FIGURE 13.12. Detailed map for the situation where the azimuth direction is j 50 .
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e FIGURE 13.13. (a) The normalized signal power, W y; j , k 10. (b) The same, as in Fig. 13.13a, but for k 20. (c) The same, as in Fig. 13.13a, but for k 30.
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FIGURE 13.13. (Continued)
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the vertical (elevation) plane, most of the energy arrives at the base station antenna from the direction closest to the zero degree elevation angle, working as a spatial lter to eliminate multipath components arriving from other direction in the EOA plane.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
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[1] Blaunstein, N., and J. Bach Andersen, Multipath Phenomena in Cellular Networks, Artech House Boston-London, 2002. [2] Blaunstein, N., and Y. Ben-Shimol, Spectral properties of signal fading and Doppler spectra distribution in urban mobile communication links, Wireless Communic. and Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 1, 2006, pp. 113 116. [3] Ponomarev, G. A., A. N. Kulikov, and E. D. Telpukhovsky, Propogation of Ultra Short Waves in Urban Environments, Tomsk, Rasko, USSR, 1991. [4] Pedersen, K., P. E. Mogensen, and B. Fleury, Power azimuth spectrum in outdoor environments, IEE Electron. Letters, vol. 33., 1997, pp. 1583 1584. [5] Pedersen, K. I., B. H. Fleury, and P. E. Mogensen, High resolution of electromagnetic waves in time-varying radio channels, IEEE Proc. Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communic. (PIMRC 97), Helsinki, Finland, Sept. 1997, pp. 650 654. [6] Pedersen, K. I., P. Mogensen, and B. H. Fleury, Experimental analysis of the joint statistical properties of azimuth spread, delay spread, and shadow fading, IEEE J. Select. Areas Communic., vol. 20, no. 3, 2002 pp. 523 531.
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