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FIGURE 11.17. Path loss, slow and fast fading margins for Gaussian and Rayleigh PDFs. (Source: [40]. Reprinted with permission # 1995 IEEE) Web Service qr code iso/iec18004 integratedfor .net
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the radio coverage of a speci c base station (BS) and the interference tolerance for the purpose of cellular map construction. Usually, when designing the network power budget and the coverage area pattern, the slow and fast fading phenomena are taken into account, as schematically demonstrated in Figure 11.17 by introducing a shadow fading margin LSF 2sSh and a fast fading margin LFF , as functions of the range between BS and MS (sSh is the standard deviation of shadowing [40].) In other words, a shadow fading margin, which is usually predicted to be the 1 2% part of the lognormal PDF, and a fast fading margin, which is typically predicted to be the 1 2% part of the Rayleigh or Rician PDF, may be taken into account simultaneously or separately in a link budget design depending on the propagation situation. This situation is often referred to as fading margin overload resulting in a very lowlevel received signal almost entirely covered in noise. The probability of such worst cases determines the event of how rapidly the signal level drops below the receiver s noise oor level (NFL). The probability of such an event was predicted in Reference [40] as a sum of the individual margin overload probabilities, the slow and the fast, when the error probability is close to 0.5, since the received signal is at the NFL. According to the three-step scenario, illustrated in Figure 11.17, the following practical algorithm of power budget design is proposed. First Step. Estimation of median path loss by using the well-known Hata-model [6,40] and deployment of a correction factor corresponding to the local antenna elevation, deduced from measurements, for example, " L LLOS LNLOS 11:29
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FIGURE 11.18. Median path loss and slow fading margin with respect to experimental data versus distance d from the transmitter in m. (Source [41]: Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons)
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Second Step. Estimation of slow fade margin, using the characteristic slow fading variance of typically 6 to 9 dB [40], and assuming lognormal slow fading PDF with a 1 2% slow fading margin overload probability (see Fig. 11.17). In this case, one has a slow fading margin of LSF 2sSh 10 15 dB. Third Step. Assuming the Rician fast fading PDF, as a more general PDF for multipath channel prediction, with the Rician parameter K 5 10 [40] and a fast fading margin overload probability of 1% (see Fig. 11.17), one has a fast fading margin of LFF 5 7 dB. Another concept that still uses the same statistical approach for obtaining the slow and fast fade margins was proposed in Reference [41]. According to the proposed concept, the effect of slow fading or shadowing can be described as a difference between the median path loss and the maximum acceptable path loss, Lm . The median path loss can be predicted by any standard propagation model (see, for example, References [2,6,21,39,40]), which is depicted in Figure 11.18 by the continuous curve according to Reference [41]. The parameter Lm relates to the noise oor gure (NFL) of the concrete communication system. To obtain the shadow fade margin, one needs information on the PDF of the slow fading, which is de ned in References [39 42] as a Gaussian process with a zero-mean Gaussian variable sSF and with a standard
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