PREDICTION OF SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION IN SPACE in .NET

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PREDICTION OF SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION IN SPACE
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FIGURE 10.30. VPL model and measured data compared to the stochastic model prediction.
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according to the map shown in Figure 10.29, we can see the existence of a strong street guide effect. This effect plays a signi cant role for the case where both the TX and RX antennas are below the rooftop level (as was mentioned in References [9,10], more than 80% of rays arriving at the receiver antenna are generated by the guiding effect of straight streets). It is also interesting to note that there are ray
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FIGURE 10.31. Joint AOA TOA distribution for Aalborg University experimental site.
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arrivals on the azimuth of 70 (pseudo-LOS direction), and these arrivals have the normalized energy (compared with free space) of about 0.9. Apparently, these pseudo-LOS arrivals present over rooftop diffracted components with low time delay and narrow angular dispersion, but they do not contribute signi cantly to the RX received power, as shown in Figure 10.29. This fact states again that all speci c features of the built-up terrain and situations with antennas are important and can change signi cantly the spatial and temporal characteristics of the signal arriving at the antenna. These effects are very important for predicting effective operational characteristics of smart wireless systems (using adaptive antennas). Azimuth-Distance Signal Dependence. Let us now analyze the behavior of expressions (10.28) (10.33), obtained by the proposed stochastic approach, using the conclusions of experiments from References [4,9,10,46,67 69]. It was shown in Reference [68,69] that the azimuth spread depends on the distance between the TX and RX antenna in a speci c manner. We show here a similar dependence described by (10.28). In References [46,67 69], the angular spread is reduced when the distance is increased for certain situations. We analyzed two cases to con rm the empirical results obtained in References [68,69]. In the rst case, which is shown in Figure 10.32, there is no street guide effect because the street plan grid does not have a rectangular form. In the second case shown in Figure 10.33 there is a straight-cross street grid. The pseudo-LOS azimuth between TX RX antennas is about 23 . Different lines depict different distances between them. A curve denoted by * is for the distance 0.2 km. The o
FIGURE 10.32. AOA distribution versus BS MS distance without the street guide effect.
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PREDICTION OF SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION IN SPACE
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FIGURE 10.33. AOA distribution depends on BS MS distance with the street guide effect.
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line is for 0.6 km, and the line is for the 2 km distance between the antennas. Here, only the distance parameter is varied in equations (10.28) (10.33) to investigate its in uence. Other parameters have typical values for urban scene " g0 4km 1 n 120 buildings per km2 and r 250 m , l 0:13 m, and w 0:5 Figures 10.32 and 10.33 show that the angular spread is decreased with an increase in separation distance between the antennas. Figure 10.33 shows an interesting phenomenon: As the distance between the MS and BS antennas increases, the street guide effect becomes more dominant. It is intuitively obvious, when the MS is far enough from the BS, that the probability of arrival of multiple re ected rays across randomly distributed scatterers is low. The same results were observed in Helsinki [9,10] for the urban scene with a grid-street plan. 10.4. SIGNAL POWER SPECTRA DISTRIBUTION IN FREQUENCY SHIFT DOMAIN Now we will talk about the spectral characteristics of the received (or transmitted) signal in order to describe the Doppler spectrum for the moving subscriber (MS) antennas in various built-up areas. 10.4.1. Spatial Signal Distribution Let us, rst of all, consider the spectral properties of the signal strength spatial e variations. We can present the spectral function W q; j0 for two typical situations
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in the urban scene regarding the elevations of the two terminal antennas with respect to the average height of the buildings. For the rst case, when the transmitter/receiver is placed at rooftops level or h below it, that is, z1 " we get [55,61] e W X; j0
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